Тема: Иностранный язык (английский язык)

  • Вид работы:
    Методичка
  • Предмет:
    Английский
  • Язык:
    Русский
  • Формат файла:
    MS Word
  • Размер файла:
    139,84 Кб
Иностранный язык (английский язык)
Иностранный язык (английский язык)
Вы можете узнать стоимость помощи в написании студенческой работы.
Помощь в написании работы, которую точно примут!

Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

"Северокавказский федеральный университет"

Утверждаю

Проректор по учебной работе и

академическому развитию СКФУ

Шипулин В.И.





Методические рекомендации к самостоятельной работе студентов

Иностранный язык (английский язык)


Разработано:

Зав. кафедрой иностранных языков

для гуманитарных

и естественнонаучных

специальностей Шибкова О.С.

Должность и ФИО разработчика:

Доцент кафедры Губанова Л.Г.

Ставрополь, 2014

Печатается по решению Учебно-методического совета Северокавказского федерального университета.

Иностранный язык (английский): Методические рекомендации к самостоятельной работе студентов дисциплины Иностранный язык (английский язык) / Составитель Губанова Л. Г. - Ставрополь: Изд-во СКФУ, 2014. - 203 с.

Пособие рассчитано на аудиторную и внеаудиторную самостоятельную работу. Содержит тексты на английском языке, задания к ним, упражнения, ориентированные на изучение языка социологами. Целью пособия является обучение чтению и переводу англоязычной литературы и развитие навыков устной речи на этой основе, а также помочь учащимся изучить грамматический строй английского языка и расширить словарный запас.

Предназначено для студентов получающих квалификацию "бакалавр" по направлению подготовки 040100.62 - Социология.

Составители: доц. Губанова Л.Г.

© Издательство Северокавказского федерального университета, 2014.

Содержание

1. Пояснительная записка

. Форма контроля самостоятельной работы студента

. План-график выполнения самостоятельной работы студента

. Задания для самостоятельной работы студента

Список литературы

1. Пояснительная записка

Методические рекомендации к самостоятельной работе студентов "Иностранный язык" (английский язык) предназначены для студентов 1-2 курса, обучающихся по направлению подготовки 040100.62 - Социология, степень - Бакалавр.

Основной целью самостоятельной работы студентов является повышение исходного уровня владения иностранным языком, достигнутого на предыдущей ступени образования, и овладение студентами необходимым и достаточным уровнем коммуникативной компетенции для решения социально-коммуникативных задач в различных областях бытовой, культурной, профессиональной и научной деятельности при общении с зарубежными партнерами, а также для дальнейшего самообразования.

Исходя из поставленной цели ставятся следующие задачи:

·повысить уровень учебной автонономии способности к самообразованию;

·развить когнитивных и исследовательских умения;

·расширить кругозор и повысить общую культуру студентов;

·развить навыки чтения, понимания и перевода литературы по специальности с английского языка на русский;

·развить навыки устной речи по литературоведению на английском языке;

·закрепить лексический и грамматический материала при помощи различных упражнений;

·выработать умения аннотировать и реферировать прочитанный материал;

·выработать умения самостоятельно анализировать философскую, историческую, социологическую, культурологическую и связанную с изучением иностранных языков информацию;

·применять научную терминологию и основные научные категории, формировать общие модели анализа по соответствующим дисциплинам;

·практически владеть системой английского языка и принципами ее функционирования применительно к различным сферам речевой коммуникации, речевого воздействия;

·вести беседу по прочитанному или прослушанному тексту, правильно используя лексический и грамматический минимум;

·кратко передать содержание текста, проанализировать текст, дать его характеристику;

·читать про себя и понимать без перевода на русский язык оригинальный текст средней трудности профессиональной направленности и публицистического жанра;

·писать орфографически правильно в пределах активного лексического минимума.

·помочь студенту наиболее эффективно организовать свою учебно-познавательскую деятельность, рационально планировать и осуществлять самостоятельную работу, а также обеспечивать формирование общих умений и навыков самостоятельной деятельности;

·разработать и внедрить отдельные формы самостоятельной работы в процессе обучения иностранному языку как при направляющем участии преподавателя, так и без него на протяжении всего курса изучения иностранного языка;

·создать психолого-дидактические условия развития интеллектуальной инициативы и мышления на занятиях любой формы.

Самостоятельная работа студентов занимает важное место в учебной и научно-исследовательской деятельности студентов. Без самостоятельной работы невозможно не только овладение любой вузовской дисциплиной, но и формирование специалиста как профессионала. В широком смысле под самостоятельной работой следует понимать совокупность всей самостоятельной деятельности студентов как в учебной аудитории, так и вне нее, в контакте с преподавателем и в его отсутствие.

Усиление роли самостоятельной работы студентов означает принципиальный пересмотр организации учебно-воспитательного процесса в вузе, который должен строиться так, чтобы развивать умение учиться, формировать у студента способности к саморазвитию, творческому применению полученных знаний, способам адаптации к профессиональной деятельности в современном мире.

Место СРС по дисциплине "Иностранный язык" с учетом принятия стандартов ФГОС третьего поколения приобрело особое значение поскольку в соответствии с новыми стандартами основной упор делается на самостоятельную работу студентов; переход от формального выполнения определенных заданий при пассивной роли студента к познавательной активности с формированием собственного мнения при решении поставленных проблемных вопросов и задач.

Согласно ФГОС ВПО 3 поколения дисциплина Иностранный язык (английский язык) относится к базовому разделу цикла "Гуманитарный, социальный и экономический цикл". Знания и умения, полученные в рамках данного курса, являются необходимыми для решения социально-коммуникативных задач, в различных областях культурной, профессиональной и научной деятельности, а также и для дальнейшего самообразования.

Данная дисциплина имеет логическую и содержательно-методическую взаимосвязь с дисциплинами: "История", "Философия", "Психология".

. Форма контроля самостоятельной работы студента

Промежуточный контроль

В течение семестров имеет место промежуточный контроль, который осуществляется 2 раза в семестр в форме мидтермов, проводимых в конце каждого месяца и состоящих из:

·лексико-грамматический тест (60 пунктов, время выполнения - 80 мин.). Включает задания на проверку текущего лексического и грамматического материала.

·тест по чтению (15 пунктов, время выполнения - 60 мин.) Проверяет умение студента понять общее содержание, некоторые детали и структуру текста.

·коллоквиум (15 пунктов для обсуждения - 80 мин.). Включает темы и вопросы, пройденные за месяц.

·эссе в форме рассуждения. (Объем - 150 слов, время выполнения - 80 мин.) Определяет умение студента развернуто излагать свои мысли по предложенной теме на английском языке.

. План-график выполнения самостоятельной работы студента

РазделНеделя семестраСамостоятельная работа студентов и трудоёмкость (в часах)Срок сдачи (неделя семестра)Сроки консультацийФормы текущего контроля1 семестрUnit 3 Mass media2-8487-я неделяИндивидуальное собеседование, тестирование, эссеИтого за 1 семестр4зачет2 семестрUnit 4 The Press1-41454-я неделяТестирование, устный опросUnit 5 Informal and Formal Education5-81898-я неделяУстное высказывание по предложенной теме, тестированиеUnit 6 Human culture.10-14181514-янеделяИндивидуальное собеседование, тестированиеИтого за 2 семестр50Зачет3 семестр Unit 7 Science and Scientists1-51254-я неделяУстное высказывание по предложенной теме, тестированиеUnit 8 Religions all Over the World6-11161110-я неделяИндивидуальное собеседование, тестирование, устный опросUnit 9 Progressive organizations and movements12-16241615-я неделяТестирование, устный опрос, эссеИтого за 2 семестр42Зачет4 семестрUnit10 Greenpeace1-41643-я неделяИндивидуальное собеседование, тестированиеUnit 11 Russia. Moscow.5-91698-я неделяТестирование, устный опрос, эссеUnit 12 The Global Problems10-13181312-я неделяУстное высказывание по предложенной темеUnit 13 International Cooperation 14-17181716-я неделяТестирование, устный опрос, эссеИтого за 4 семестр68Зачет с оценкойИтого164

4. Задания для самостоятельной работы студента

1OF THE GLOBE1.Translate the following words into Russian., unknown, first, poor, common, useless, variant, simple, different, new, most known, leave, last, useful, long ago, foreign, finish, complex, nowadays, standard, native, similar, unofficial, far, various, old, official, close, rich, enter.2.Give Russian equivalents for these words and word combinations.

) In the world, 2) various nations, 3) a lot of, 4) lexicon, 5) versatile, 6) most essential, 7) widely distributed, 8) at present, 9) for one's own use, 10) to comprise, 11) mother tongue, 12) further development, 13) great quantity, 14) major, 15) to occupy.3.Read and give a summary of the text.of the GlobeImany languages do the Globe people speak today? This is not the question with a simple answer. The figures differ.we turn to the UN statistics, the Earth nations speak now more than 5 000 various languages, some of them being spoken by millions or billions of people, others - only by hundreds. Inside this great number of languages 13 ones are distinguished as the Great Languages according to the total number of speakers.1,5 billion people speak now Chinese, that belongs to the Chinese-Tibet language group. It is the official language of China. But it is also spoken in Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore and some other states. There are 7 main dialects of Chinese today. They differ from each other in phonetics, vocabulary and grammar.1 billion people in more than 50 countries of the world speak English as their mother tongue and second official or foreign language. English belongs to the German language group. Today it is one of the world's most important and universal languages.of the richest, most expressive and widespread languages in the world is Russian belonging to the East-Slavic languages. About400 million people in different countries know and speak this language now.the official language of the Russian Federation, Russian also plays a very important role as a means of intercourse of the CIS (the Commonwealth of Independent States) nations. Many people from the East Europe countries know and speak Russian, to say nothing of all the Russian emigrants, who left our land and brought the Russian language to such states as: France, Germany, Norway, Finland, Mongolia, Israel, Afganistan, the USA, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Italy, several states of Africa and many other countries.ratio of the rest Great languages is as follows (in millions): Hindi and Urdu - 350, Spanish - 340, Indonesian - 210, Arabian - 200, Bengali - 180, Portuguese - 150, Japanese - 120, German - 100, French - 95 and Italian - 75.IIto the language groups, the situation is this: Spanish is one of the Romanic languages. It occupies the first place in the geographical distribution. It is the official language of Spain. But it is also spoken on the Philippines, in Cuba, several states of Latin America and Africa.of India speak more than 800 different languages which belong to the Indo-European language group. The total number of speakers exceeds 1 billion.is one of the Semite languages. And it is also one of the most widespread languages on the Globe today. Arabian is spoken in more than 25 states: Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Laos, Libya, Sudan, Tunis, Yemen and many others.belongs to the Romanic language group. It is spoken in Portugal, Brazil, several states of Asia and Africa.and Italian belong to the Romanic language group. The first one is the official language in France and the second official one in Canada. It is also spoken in Belgium, several states of Africa and Asia. The second one is the official language of Italy. And it is also spoken by many people in some other countries., that belongs to the German language group, is spoken in Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium and some other states.belongs to the Malayan-Polynesian language group that includes over 800 languages. It is now spoken on the Philippines, in Taiwan, Indonesia, Madagascar and some other countries.belongs to the Asian language group. It is the official language of Japan. But it is also spoken by many people in some other countries: the Philippines, Taiwan, Indo-China and Madagascar.more languages are rather close to the Great Languages group. These are Korean and Turkish. The first one is spoken by more than 70 million people and the second one - by 60 million people.into consideration the distribution rate of several languages, including both the total number of speakers and the states using these languages, the UN chose six languages as its official and working ones. They include Chinese, English, Russian, Spanish, Arabian and French. English holds a special place among them.it is necessary for the people of good will all over the world to know several or at least one foreign language. It is important not only for their personal use or benefit, but also for better understanding between various nations. Il is also necessary for learning more about each other's history and culture, their scientific, economic and technical achievements, as well as for establishing lasting friendly relations and thus for peace and further progress on the Earth.

Exercise 4. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations

1) Население земного шара/земли; 2) говорить на разных языках; 3) знатьнесколько иностранных языков; 4) выделять "великие" языки; 5) носитель языка; 6) самый важный/ распространенный язык на земле 7) занимать первое место; 8) очень выразительный и богатый язык; 9) играть важную роль; 10) средство общения; 11) не говоря о; 12) по географической распространенности; 13) принадлежать к группе славянских/романских/индоевропейских языков; 14) для личной пользы/выгоды; 15) страны СНГ; 16) люди доброй воли во всем мире; 17) для лучшего взаимопонимания/для мира на земле; 18) необходимо изучать и знать иностранные языки; 19) принимать во внимание; 20) технические/научные/культурные достижения; 21) установить дружественные отношения.

Exercise 5. Translate into Russian.you know?

. Today every sixth person on the Globe speaks English.

. English has the largest vocabulary: 500 000 words and 300 000 technical terms. It is a very flexible language:

. The same word can function in different parts of speech.

. Prepositions are very flexible.

. The vocabulary openness: a lot of words come from many other languages.

. Compounds and derivatives are easily created.

. The oldest written language on the Globe is Egyptian. It is 5000 years old.

. India is the sub-continent which has the largest number of languages - over 800.

. The largest number of letters in its alphabet has Cambodian - 72 letters.

. The largest world encyclopedia is printed in Spanish.

. Latin is one of the ancient languages that belongs to the Italic language group. In XVIII-XIX centuries it was the language of science, commerce, medicine, diplomacy, etc. It has played an important role in the development of many European languages. The Latin vocabulary is one of the richest sources of creating many international words, especially scientific terms.

. Esperanto has no irregular verbs. It is an artificial language that was invented in 1887 on the basis of the international vocabulary.

Exercise 6. Translate into English.

. Почти половина человечества говорит на 5 языках: китайском, английском, хинди, русском и испанском.

. Самый сложный в мире язык - китайский (более 20 миллионов иероглифов).

. Русский язык считается очень сложным для иностранцев.

. К трудным языкам также относятся: арабский язык (44 падежа) и язык североамериканских индейцев (70 приставок).

. Самый легкий язык - гавайский (6 согласных букв и 5 гласных букв).

. Согласно исследованиям британских ученых, самым вежливым языком признан язык эскимосов из Гренландии. В нем нет ни одного ругательного или обидного слова.

. По статистике ООН на изучение своего родного языка больше всех тратят англичане - около 8 лет.

Exercise 7. Answer the questions.

. How many languages do people of the Globe speak today?

. And what about the number of the Great languages?

. Why are these languages called the Great ones?

. What languages does this group comprise?

. What language holds the first place in this group?

. And what can you say about English and Russian?

. What are the UN's official and working languages? Why?

. Is it important nowadays to know any foreign language or not?

. Why do you think so? Give your arguments.

Grammar exercises1.Replace with the pronouns:

My father is a teacher. My mother is a teacher.

He is a teacher. She is a teacher.

My parents are teachers.are teachers.

. Your sister is a journalist. 2. His brother is a driver. 3. His mother and father are doctors. 4. Her grandfather is a scientist5.Their grandparents are pensioners. 6. My mother is a dentist. 7. Our parents are artists. 8. Your cousin is a student. 9. Her grandmother is a pensioner. 10. Your brother is a manager.

Exercise 2.Open the brackets:

I (to be) a student. He (to be) a student.am a student. He is a student.(to be) students. You (to be) students.are students. You are students.

She (to be) a student.is a student.(to be) students.are students.

. I (to be) a pupil. 2. He (to be) a worker. 3. He (to be) an employee. 4. They (to be) teachers. 5. We (to be) journalists.6. You (to be) fitters. 7. They (to be) engineers. 8. She (to be) an actress. 9. I (to be) a doctor. 10. We (to be) scientists.

Exercise 3.Transform into the plural:

He is a student. She is a student. I am studentare students. They are students. We are students

1. I am a pupil. 2. She is a manager. 3. He is a businessman. 4. He is a fitter. 5. She is a physicist. 6. I am a musician. 7. She is an actress. 8. I am an artist. 9. He is a carpenter. 10. She is a teacher.

Exercise 4. Transform into the plural:

This is a book. That is a book.are books. Those are books.

1. This is a notebook. 2. This is a clip. 3. That is a pen. 4. This is an article. 5. That is a ruler. 6. This is a composition. 7. That is a pin. 8. This is a journal. 9. That is a disc. 10. This is a cassette.

Exercise 5.Write short forms (she's/we're, etc.).

1. heishe's 3. she is not 5. I am not

2. they are 4. it is not 6. you are not

Exercise 6. Write the full forms (she is/we are, etc.).

1. we aren't we are not 3. you're5. it isn't

2. I'm4. they aren't6. she's

Exercise 7. Put in am, is or are.

1. The sky is very blue today. 2. Inot tired. 3. This shelfvery heavy.4. These shelvesvery heavy. 5. The childasleep. 6. Look! This_____Ann. 7. I____cold. Can you shut the window, please? 8. The castle______one thousand years old. 9. My brother and I_______ good tennis players. 10. Amy____at home but her parents________in church. 11. Ia student. 12. My sisteran archeologist.

Exercise 8.Write full sentences. Use am/is/are each time.

1. (my grandparents very old) My grandparents are very old.

2. (my desk very comfortable)

3. (your spectacles in your bag)

4. (I not very clever today)

5. (this house very expensive)

6. (the shops not open today)

7. (Mr Wren's grandson six years old)

. (the houses in this street very big)

. (the examination not difficult)

10. (those flowers very beautiful)

Exercise 9. Write positive or negative sentences. Use am/am not/is/isn't/are/aren't.

. (Brussels...the capital of Belgium) Brussels is the capital of Belgium.

2. (I...interested in hockey) / am not interested in hockey.

3. (I...angry)

4. (It…cold today)

. (The Hague...in Switzerland)

. (I...afraid of dogs)

. (My hands...dirty)

8. (Russia...a very big country)

9. (The Amur...in Europe)

10. (Diamonds...cheap)

11. (Motor-racing...a dangerous sport)

12. (Squirrels...big animals)

Exercise 10. Write questions with What/Who/How/Where/Why…?Use am/is/are.

1. (What colour your house? What colour is vour house?

2. (Where my key?)_________________________________?

3. (Where my trousers?)_____________________________________?

. (How old your grandmother?)_______________________________?

5. (What colour his hair?)__________________________________?

6. (How much these shoes?)______________________________________?

. (Who your favourite actor?)________________________________?

8. (Why you always late?)_______________________________________?

Exercise 11. Ask questions. (Read the answers to the questions first.)

1. (his name?) What's his name? Robert.

. (single or married?) Are you single or married? I'm single.

. (British?)No, I'm not.

. (where / from?)From Australia.

. (how old?)I'm 18.

. (a student?)No, I'm a secretary.

. (your mother a teacher?)No, she's a lawyer.

. (where / from?)She's Italian.

. (her name?)Rachel.

. (how old?)She's 40.

Exercise 12.Write positive and negative short answers (Yes, I am./No, he isn't, etc.)

1. Are you married? No, I'm not.6. Is it light now?_________

. Is she tall? 7. Are your hands warm?______

3. Is it cold today? 8. Are you thirsty?_____________

4. Are you an engineer? 9. Is your father tall?____________

5. Are you hungry?______________ 10. Is it sunny?__________________

Exercise 13. Translate intoEnglish.

1. Твой брат дома? 2. Сколько стоят эти открытки? 3. Эта гостиница очень дорогая. 4. Я интересуюсь искусством. 5. Все магазины сегодня открыты. 6. Музей сегодня открыт? Мне жарко. 8. Моя сестра архитектор, 9. Я не устала. 10. Откуда родом ее муж? 11. Они не студенты, они врачи. 12. Тебе интересны иностранные языки?14. Translate into English.

  1. Я не ученик. Я студент.
  2. Его брат ученик. Он в школе.
  3. Мои родители инженеры. Они на работе.
  4. Вы доктор? - Нет, я учитель.
  5. Твоя сестра ученица? - Нет, она инженер. Она на работе.
  6. Ее сестра не секретарь. Она учитель.
  7. Это врачи? - Нет, они летчики.
  8. Ваша сестра дома? - Нет, она на работе.
  9. Наш отец ученый.

10. Его тетя не доктор. Она актриса.

. Это моя книга. Она на столе.

.Мой двоюродный брат не ученый, он инженер.

. Это картины. Они на стене. Картины очень красивые.

. Моя бабушка пенсионерка. Она не на роботе. Она дома.

. Ваши дети школьники? - Да, они школьники.

Exercise 15. Put in am, is or are.

1. What ... your name? - My name ... Shirley Frank. 2. What ... your address? - My address ... 175 Grand Central Parkway. 3. What ... your phone number? - My phone number ... 718-1930. 4. Where ... you from? - I ... from New York. 5. I ... a pupil. 6. My father ... not a teacher, he ... a scientist. 7. ... your aunt a doctor? - Yes, she ... . 8. ... they at home? - No, they ... not at home, they ... at work. 9. My brother ... a worker. He ... at work. 10. ... you an engineer? - Yes, I ... . 11. ... your sister a typist? - No, she ... not a typist, she ... a student. 12. ... your brother at school? - Yes, he ... . 13. ... your sister at school? - No, she ... not at school. 14. My sister ... at home. 15. ... this your watch? - Yes, it ... . 16. She ... an actress. 17. This ... my bag. 18. My uncle ... an office worker. 19. He ... at work. 20.Helen ... a painter. She has some fine pictures. They ... on the walls. She has much paper. It ... on the shelf. The shelf ... brown. It... on the wall. Helen has a brother. He ... a student. He has a family. His wife ... not from St Petersburg, she ... from Moscow.16. Translate into English.

. Как тебя зовут? - Меня зовут Аня. 2. Какой твой адрес? - Мой адрес: Оксфорд Стрит, 45. 3. Откуда ты родом? (... приехала?) - Я из Лондона. 4. Кто он (на фотографии)? - Это мой отец. 5. Как его зовут? - Его зовут Джон. 6. Где он? - Он в Лондоне. 7. Я Лена, а это Коля. Он мойбрат. Ему 10 лет, а мне 12 лет. Мы из Петербурга. 8. Я ученик. Я в школе. 9. Мой брат - художник. Он не инженер. 10. Моя сестра на работе. Она врач. 11. Он студент. 12. Вы студент? - Нет, я врач. 13. Моя сестра дома. 14. Мы не в школе. Мы дома. 15. Мой брат - ученик. Он в школе. 16. Ваша мама дома? - Нет, она на работе. 17. Ваш двоюродный брат дома? - Нет, он в школе. Он ученик. 18. Ваша сестра - учительница? - Нет, она студентка. 19. Твой папа на работе? - Нет, он дома. 20. Твоя сестра - машинистка? - Да. - Она дома? - Нет, она на работе. 21. Мой дедушка - ученый. 22. Моя мама - не учительница. Она врач. Она очень хороший врач.

Exercise 17. Translate into English.

. Меня зовут Катя. 2. Мне 14 лет. 3. Я русская. Я из Санкт-Петербурга. 4. Я ученица. 5. Мой любимый вид спорта - теннис. 6. Я интересуюсь музыкой. 7. Мой любимый предмет - английский язык. 8. Мой папа - программист. Он не интересуется политикой. 9. Моя мама - зубной врач. Она интересуется искусством. 10. Мы всегда заняты, но мы очень счастливы быть вместе. 11. Чья это ручка? - Это моя ручка. 12. Чья это книга? - Это ваша книга. 13. Чей это стол? - Это стол моего брата. 14. Чья это сумка? - Это сумка моей мамы. 15. Чей это карандаш? - Это карандаш моей сестры. 16. Это твоя тетрадь? - Да. 17. Это тетрадь твоего брата? - Нет, это моя тетрадь. 18. Где ваш стол? - Он посередине комнаты. 19. Где твоя ручка? - Она в моем кармане. 20. Где твоя тетрадь? - Она на столе. 21. Где твоя мама? - Она на работе. 22. Где твой брат? - Он в школе. 23.Где твоя сестра? - Она дома. 24. Чей это карандаш? - Это мой карандаш. - А где мой карандаш? - Он на столе. 25.Чьи это часы? - Это мои часы. - А где мои часы? - Они на столе.

Exercise 18. Put in am, is or are.

. Where ... you? - I ... in the kitchen. 2. Where ... Fred? - He ... in the garage. 3. Where ... Lisa and John? - They … at college. 4. ... you busy? - No, I ... not. Mike ... busy. He ... the busiest person I've ever met. 5. It ... ten o'clock. She ... late again. 6. How ... you? - I ... not very well today. - I ... sorry to hear that. 7. We ... interested in classical music. 8. Vera ... afraid of snakes. 9. My grandmother ... not nervous and she ... rarely upset. She ... the kindest person I've ever seen. My grandmother ... really wonderful. 10. I ... sorry. They ... not at the office at the moment. 11.Where ... the keys? - In your jacket. 12.What ... the time, please? - Two o'clock. 13.It ... the biggest meal I've ever had. 14.Which sport do you think ... the most dangerous? 15.Chess and aerobics ... not as exciting as skydiving and figure skating. 16.Debt ... the worst kind of poverty. 17.The game ... not worth the candle. 18.Do you have any idea where he ...?19. Used cars ... cheaper but less reliable than new cars.20. What ... the weather forecast for tomorrow? 21. Art ... long, life ... short. 22. You ... the best friend I've ever had.19. Express requests using the models:. Model: Ask (tell) John to shut the door, - John, shut the door, please.

. Ask Bob to give you a call after five. 2. Ask Mary to buy a birthday present. 3. Tell Nelly to take the book to the library. 4. Tell Olga to lay the table for three. 5. Tell the secretary to type these papers today. 6. Ask Peter to buy some bread on his way home.

B. Model: Ask (tell) John not to shut the door. - John, don't shut the door, please.

1. Ask Nick not to speak so loudly. 2. Ask your mother not to get up early tomorrow, 3. Tell Ann not to read at lunch. 4. Tell Kate not to send him a telegram. 5. Tell Susie not to come home so late. 6. Ask Janet not to waste money on sweets.20. Make the following imperative sentences negative:

. Give this letter to your boss. 2, Invite your boyfriend to the party. 3. Read the text aloud. 4. Smile when you are talking to me. 5. Take her to your parents' place.; 6. Wait for him for an hour. 7. See this film, 8. Take a taxi, 9, Get up! 10. Forget about it.21. Express polite requests instead of commands: Model: Come here! - Will (would) you come here, please?

. Make me a call at three! 2. Go shopping after classes! 3. Meet me at the station! 4. Wash up the dishes! 5. Speak to your teacher at school! 6. Turn on the light! 7. Explain it to me! 8. Stay at home on Saturday! 9. Tell me the truth! 10. Move out of the way! 11. Remember to post the letter! 12. Go to bed at once!22. Read the following:to be fit't stay in bed in the morning too long.'t forget to do morning exercises,'t eat your breakfast.'t be late for classes.'t take lunch to school.'t eat sandwiches in class.'t sit in one place during the breaks.'t drink too much water and other drinks.'t say you are hungry when you are.'t eat chocolates or cakes.'t take a bus when you can walk.'t go to parties where they serve good food.'t smoke or drink alcohol.'t use drugs.'t visit doctors unnecessarily.'t lie on the sofa when you watch TV or listen to music.'t go to bed during the day.23. Your mother is away on a business trip. When you come home from school you find a note with her instructions which are as follows:'t miss classes.straight home after classes.up after every meal.Monday go to the dry cleaners' to fetch our things.to the greengrocer's and buy some vegetables.your grandparents to stay with you for the weekend. I't waste money on candies and ice cream.'t bring home too many friends.'t disturb neighbours by loud music.home in the evenings, I may call.

Imagine that you are in your mother's place. What recommendations would you like to write to a teenage daughter?24. Translate into English.

1. Перестаньте разговаривать, 2. Снимай пальто и проходи в комнату. 3. Положи сахар и молоко в кофе.4. Не ешь столько мороженого. 5. Не выходи на улицу без шапки. 6. Останься посмотреть телепрограмму с нами. 7. Попроси Ника принести словарь. 8. Пригласи Их и гости. 9. Переходите улицу только на перекрестке. 10. Проводи меня домой. 11. Не ссорься с родителями. 12. Не перебивай меня. 13. Вели ей подать кофе. 14. Попроси ее перевести письмо. 15. Спроси полицейского, где почта. 16. Подумайте, прежде чем отвечать. 17. Не ешьте много на ночь. 18. Не откладывай на завтра то, что можно сделать сегодня.

Exercise 25. Write the plurals of these nouns in the columns below to show their pronunciation, glass, friend, bottle, cinema, clock, guitar, hotel, island, lake, light, month, office, park, piece, smile, space, tape, village, box, match, beach, address.

[s] [z] [iz] shops friends glasses26. Give the plural of the following nouns.

A. Toe, city, hero, piano, calf, cliff, proof, chief, stitch, bath, belief, life, shelf, berry, valley, roof, pen, window, wall, week, clock, ship, library, watch, dress, country, glass, day, part play, bus, leaf, colony, fox, half, mass, eye, language, place, key, thief, ray, bush, journey;. foot, boot, ox, fox, man, woman, month, mouse, child, ship, goose, deer, cheese, sheep;. crisis, phenomenon, datum, nucleus, basis, apparatus, criterion, series, analysis, formula;. room-mate, fellow-worker, court-martial, man-of-war, boy-messenger, onlooker, passer-b sister-in-law, postman, son-in-law, fisherman, schoolgirl, text-book, pocket-knife, statesman, editor-in-chief.

Exercise 27. Translate into English.

  1. Это мои друзья.
  2. Это газеты, а то журналы.
  3. Эти газеты свежие, а те газеты старые.
  4. Это ваши книга? - Да.
  5. Это не ее письма.
  6. Это шляпа Анны?
  7. Это не моя сумка.
  8. Это чай, а то кофе.

9.Это не мои книги. 10.Это наши учителя.

Exercise 28. Give the plural form.

this envelope this manthis report this baby

this factory this deerthis mouse this city

this hotel this game this child this leaf

this rule this bus this candle

this club this tooth this lady

Exercise 29. Give the plural form.

  1. This is a baby.10. This is a student.
  2. This is a port.11. This is a disco.
  3. This is a pilot.12. That is a roof.
  4. This is a factory.13. This is an apple.
  5. This is a camera.14. This is a wolf.
  6. This is a car.15. This is an ox.
  7. This is a sandwich.16. This is a woman.
  8. This is a piano.17. This is an orange.
  9. This is a half.18. That is a patch.

Exercise 30. Give the plural form.

  1. This is a child.9. Is that a teacher?
  2. This isn't a baby.10. That isn't a lamb.
  3. This is a sheep.11. This is a fish.
  4. That isn't a path.12. That isn't an atlas.
  5. This is a stranger.13. That is a leaf.

6. This isn't a mouse. 14. This isn't a camera.

7. Is this a man?15. This is a half.

8. That is a doctor

UNIT IIToday1. Read and give a summary of the text.is only during the last hundred years that English has become one of the world's most important languages. In Shakespeare's days English as well as Russian was "a provincial language", a language of secondary importance. People spoke mostly French, Italian, German and some other languages.English has become one of the most important and universal languages in the world. И is used in politics, economy, science, medicine, technology, business and trade, tourism and cultural relations.lot of various articles about important scientific discoveries and achievements arc published in English. Great deal of information for computers (over 80%) is written in English. It is also the major working language of most international congresses and seminars, conferences and symposiums.the total number of speakers, English holds the second place only to Chinese. It is the native language (or mother tongue) for many people from various countries. It is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, Australia and Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and some other states. It is also spoken as the second official language by many people in India, Pakistan, numerous countries of Africa, to say nothing of (he people all over the world, who know English as a foreign language.holds the first place in the world among the foreign languages taught at schools, colleges, lyceums and higher educational establishments. To know English is now necessary to get a good job in many countries. Today English is the main means for various business and social contacts with numerous foreign partners.English-speaking nations have one common language, English, but it is not the same with all of them. Languages are constantly changing and English is no exception. National features, historic and cultural changes in different countries brought changes into the language too. In some countries old English words got new meanings, while in others new terms were needed because there appeared new and un-English things.addition, a lot of new words were borrowed from other languages: Indian, Eskimo, Gaelic and others, to say nothing of such languages as: Danish, French, German, Spanish, Greek, Italian and Latin. In fact, English has become a mixture of numerous languages.there exist several variants of English on the Globe: British, American, Canadian, Australian, Irish, etc. There are numerous differences between them in intonation, pronunciation and grammatical constructions. However, the most noticeable difference is in the vocabulary.all these variants of English two ones occupy special places: the British English (as the standard literary language) and the American English (due to the USA great influence in the world).3. Find the sentences in the text:

1. подтверждающие тот факт, что английский язык является одним из самых распространенных и важных языков в мире сегодня;

. объясняющие причины изменений, происшедших в языке многих англоязычных стран;

. содержащие информацию о существовании нескольких вариантов английского языка и различиях между ними.

Exercise 4. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information.

1. People of the Globe speak today many languages.

. French and German are among the world Great languages.

. Hundred years ago English was one of the world's most important languages.

. Russian is one of the most expressive and richest languages in the world.

. According to the geographical distribution Turkish holds the first place on the Globe.

. More than 50% of the Earth population speak Italian.

. Taking into consideration the volume of printed editions, English, Russian and Spanish are the most widespread and fashionable languages on the Earth today.

. Nowadays English is the world's most important language in politics, science, commerce and cultural relations.

. The official language of Australia and Canada is English.

. All English speaking countries have one common language - English.

. Many languages have changed but English is an exception.

. The American English is considered to be the standard literary language.

. Italian, Russian, German and Spanish belong to the Romanic language group.

. Today there exist several variants of English on the Earth but there is no difference between them.

. It is essential for people of good will all over the world to know foreign languages.

Exercise 5. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations

1) официальный язык страны; 2) язык науки/политики/коммерции; 3) не исключение; 4) говорить на общем языке; 5) по географической распространенности; 6) вносить изменения в язык; 7) заимствовать новые слова из других языков; 8) многочисленные/заметные различия; 9) необходимы новые термины; 10) значение слова; 11) исторические и культурные перемены; 12) англоязычные страны; 13) изучать восточные языки; 14) необходимо знать язык для получения работы/образования; 15) рабочий/иностранный/официальный/родной язык; 16) язык конференций и семинаров; 17) не говоря о; 18) средство контактов; 19) зарубежные партнеры; 20) преподавать иностранный язык; 21) занимать первое место; 22) люди доброй воли во всем мире; 23) стандартный литературный язык; 24) получать новое значение; 25) национальные особенности; 26) кроме того; 27) постоянно меняться; 28) смесь различных языков; 29) иметь очень большое влияние в мире; 30) выдающиеся достижения/открытия.

Exercise 6. Answer the following questions.

. Was English always one of the world's most important and universal languages or not?

. What languages were popular in Shakespeare's time?

. What place does English hold now?

. How many people speak this language today?

. Can you prove that English is now one of the world's most important and universal languages?

. Where is it applied?

. What do all English speaking countries have in common?

. What variants of English are there on the Globe nowadays?

. What do these variants differ in?

. Which of the variants hold special places today and why?6. Translate into English.

Михаил Ломоносов:

"Карл V, римский император, говаривал, что испанским (языком) говорить прилично с Богом, французским - с друзьями, немецким - с неприятелем, итальянским - с женским полом.

Но если бы он русскому языку был искусен, то, конечно, он добавил бы, что им со всеми говорить пристойно, ибо он нашел бы в русском языке великолепие испанского, живость французского, нежность итальянского, крепость немецкого, а сверх того богатство греческого и краткость латинского".:- Бог; emperor - император; decently - прилично, пристойно; enemy - неприятель; to add - добавить; thefair - прекрасный пол; clever - искусный; tofind - находить; splendour - великолепие; vivacity - живость; strength - крепость; delicacy - нежность; moreover - сверх того; richness - богатство; brevity - краткость.

Grammar exercises1. Use to have or have got in the Present Indefinite Tense.

  1. ... you got any paper? - I am sorry. I... no paper.
  2. They... no French magazines.
  3. Miss Cabston... no family of her own.
  4. Mike and Jane ...a new flat.
  5. Miss Evance... a new coat.
  6. My friend ... no telephone.
  7. ... your children got many toys?
  8. ... you got any questions?

Exercise 2. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. Danny has a new computer.

2. Fie has a headache.

3. This woman has a black cat.

4. I have ninety stamps.

. My parents have a big house.

. This man has fifty English books.1

7. My brother has a wife and two children.

Exercise 3. Translate into English.

1.У вас много книг по истории - Да.

2.У вашего друга есть гараж - Нет.

3.У него большая семья? - Нет. Их трое.

4.У Мэри есть дети? - Да, у нее двое детей.

5.У них есть свой сад? - Да.

6.У этого преподавателя много групп? - Да, у него 5 групп.

7.У вас есть какие-нибудь журналы? - Да.

8.У него есть виды Лондона?

9.У нас нет фермы.

10.У него нет жены.

11.У нас нет свободного времени.

12.У моей жены нет летней шляпы.

13.У них нет занятий по немецкому языку сегодня.

14.У его сестры нет детей.

15.У их сына нет велосипеда.

16.У нас нет лекций сегодня

Exercise 3. Write the short form (we've got/he hasn't got, etc.).

  1. we have got we've got 3. they have got5. it has got__________
  2. he has got 4. she has not got 6.1 have not got_______

Exercise 4. Write questions.

  1. (you/a bicycle?) Have you got a bicycle?
  2. (you/a VCR?) _____________________________________________?
  3. (your father/a car?)_________________________________________?
  4. (Carol/many friends?)___________________?
  5. (Mr and Mrs Lewis/any children?)___________________?
  6. (how much money/you?)_____________________________________?
  7. (what kind of car/John?)______________________________________?

Exercise 5. Put in have got ('ve got), has got ('s got), haven't got or hasn't got.

  1. They like flowers. They've got a lot of roses in their garden.
  2. Jane hasn't got a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle.
  3. Everybody likes Tom.. Hea lot of friends.
  4. Mr and Mrs Eastwoodtwo children, a boy and a girl.
  5. This insectsix legs.
  6. I can't open the door. Ia key.
  7. Quick! Hurry! Wemuch time.
  8. "What'swrong?" - "Isomething in my eye".
  9. Ben doesn't read much. Hemany books.
  10. It's a nice town. Ita very nice shopping centre.
  11. Mother is going to the dentist. Shea toothache.
  12. "Where's my newspaper?" - "I don't know. Iit."
  13. Julia wants to go on holiday but sheany money.
  14. I'm not going to work today. Ia bad cold.

Exercise 6. Extend the sentences according to the pattern.: I always have sandals in the summer, (this summer)haven't got any sandals this summer.

  1. They have seminars every month, (this month)
  2. They have a lot of flowers in their garden every summer, (this summer)
  3. We have a letter from home every week, (this week)
  4. He often has a sore throat, (today)
  5. I usually have warm shoes in the winter, (this winter)
  6. She has a new dress every summer, (this summer)
  7. They always have a light supper, (tonight)
  8. I often have a headache in the evening, (tonight)
  9. I often have fish for dinner, (today)

Exercise 7. Use personal pronouns

  1. The children are playing. Teachers are looking at....
  2. The table is not clean. Clean ....
  3. Look at this computer. ... is very expensive.
  4. His homework is difficult. Help....
  5. My students are nice. I like....
  6. These books are not good. I don't like....
  7. This car is good. I like ....

Exercise 8. Translate into English.

our photo, their phone number, her piano, his class, their music, our dentist, your mother, their wives, your computer, its screen, his father, our teacher, their sportsmen.9.Say it in English.

их друзья, наш брат, ваш номер, твой спорт, его домашняя работа, моя книга, ее фото, наши студенты, их учитель, ее отец, ваши книги, их врачи, ваша жена, твой телефон.

Exercise 10. Translate the pronouns.

  1. This book is (их)
  2. This camera is (моя).
  3. This passport is (ваш).
  4. This room is (наша).
  5. This vase is (ee).
  6. This photo is (их).
  7. This car is (наша).
  8. This bag is (твой).

Exercise 11. Translate into English.

Model: Мы в своей комнате. - We are in our room.

  1. Он в своей машине.6. Мы в своем доме.
  2. Они в своем саду (garden). 7.Ты в своем дворе(уаrd).
  3. Вы в своем парке (park). 8. Они в своем классе.
  4. Я в своей квартире (flat). 9. Мы в своем саду.
  5. Она в своем классе. 10. Я в своей комнате (гооm).

Exercise 12. Translate into English.

Моя книга, ее ручка, наша комната, его собака, ваш портфель, их комната, твоя машина.

Exercise 13. Use the right pronoun:. 1. Kate and (I, me) work together. 2. We spent our holiday together with (them, they). 3. My sister and (I, me) are good friends. 4. It's (he, him). 5. (She, her) writes to (he, him) every day. 6. (We, us) enjoy playing tennis. 7. Will you give (her, she) and (I, me) some help? 8. Helen and (they, them) are next-door neighbours.. 1. (My, me) aunt Susan is (my, me) mother's sister. 2. (Our, us) relatives are coming to see (our, us) today. 3. Tell (them, their) about it. 4. Is this (you, your) dog? There is something wrong with (it, its) ear. 5. Ask (him, his) if it's (him, .his) car. 6. George and Carol are having (them, their) lunch. 7. He gave (me, my) (him, his) photograph in which I couldn't recognize (him, his). 8. We were surprised to see (them, their) on the platform, they also came to meet (our, us).14. Use "me," "you," "him,""her," "it," "us," "them":

. She gave…. the book and asked to return … to... next week. 2. Are you going to invite…to your party? She is such a bore! 3. My parents are coming to see….on Saturday. I like to spend my weekend with…4. I didn't like the film. I don't want to speak about…5. We'll be very happy if you go on a trip with..... 6. Don't ask... this question. I don't know how to -answer.... 7. If she doesn't arrive tomorrow send... a telegram. 8. I'm sorry to trouble ... but I want…to do... a favour. 9. Let's not wait for… they are always late. 10. Do you want'… to do it for…? I don't mind…15. Use personal or possessive pronouns in the right form:. 1. The girls, are here, ... came early. 2. When Roger saw Ann... spoke to… .3. The boss left an hour ago. I didn't see.... 4. Sam met Ann at the entrance, showed ... the pictures. 4. The Browns have moved into a new flat. … gave … …new address, so I can visit…. 6.Jane is, sister.... is older than…am. 7. Thank... for the book ... gave ... , ... is very interesting.8.... flat is on the third floor…windows face the sea. 9.I invite... to a party at... place.... hope ... will bring ... husband with....10. … like to visit ... friends who live not far from … house. 11. Mary and … cousin are spending ...holidays in Brighton…. have both visited before. 12. Bill takes ... guitar lesson on Monday. … is the only day … is free after college. 13. I am happy that ...cat found…kitten.

В. 1. Has anyone had … coffee? 2. No one had ... watch on. 3. Has anyone left … raincoat behind? 4. Everybody took... turn. 5. Anybody can take book home. 6. Something alive just poked ….nose out of that hole. 7. Each of the girls was in... place.16. Complete the sentences using nouns in the possessive case:

. My aunt is my ... sister. 2. My cousin Jane is my …daughter. 3. My mother has a sister, her son is my… nephew. 4. My…father is my father-in-law. 5. My father has a brother, his daughter is my...niece. 6. My ... parents are my grandparents. 7. My ... children are my grand children.17. Use nouns in the possessive case.: The friends of my parents.- My parents' friends.

. The children of John Turner. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The name of this man. 5. The voice of this girl. 6. The car of my parents. 7. The room of my friend. 8. The handbags of these women. 9. The flat of my sister is large. 10. The children of my brother are at home. 11. The room of the boys is large. 12. The poems of Lermontov.18. Translate into Russian.pupils' meeting, сhildren's shoes, the friend's mother, the Browns' house, the cat's tail, the dog's eyes, dogs eyes, the manager's office, managers offices, an hour's drive, the boys' ball, the women's hats, the men's cars, teachers books, friends mother, the man's brother.19. Rewrite these sentences using 's, s', or just an apostrophe ('),

  1. The books for children. These are children's books,
  2. This bag belongs to my friend.
  3. He described the career of the actress.
  4. This is the signature of Mr Brown.
  5. The mistakes which students make.
  6. This is a club for women.
  7. It's a school for girls.
  8. The room is for the guests.
  9. This umbrella belongs to James.
  10. I liked the dinner we had yesterday at the cafe belonging to Mike.

Exercise 20. Only where possible, use 's or(') to show possession in these sentences.

  1. The book of this author. The author's book.
  2. I can't see the bottom of the box. __
  3. The crew of the ship was small. _
  4. It's the fault of no one.
  5. Do you like the poetry of Eliot?
  6. That's the leg of the table.
  7. Where's the key of the car?

UNIT IIIMEDIA1.Read and give a summary of the text.world today is increasingly driven by the information and entertainment values, and these are provided by various means of communication. The age of mass communication has made it possible to gain access to far more information than ever before.media have now become the major part of our lives. They are basically divided into two categories: print (magazines, newspapers, books) and electronic (radio, television and the Internet).by day they inform us of what is going on in the world. They give us wonderful possibilities for education and entertainment. They also have great effect on the way, we see the world, and shape our views.main source of news for millions of people is nowadays television. It is especially important for those who do not read any newspapers. Most of us like TV because we can not only listen to some breaking news, but also see different events with our own eyes. And it is very important: seeing believes., there are many people all over the world who prefer listening to the radio. In their opinion, it is especially good when driving a car or travelling, while doing some work about the house or in the open air.lot of people can't live a day without reading some newspapers or magazines. Of course, both newspapers and magazines don't respond to various current events as quickly as the television or radio, but they also have their own advantages. They provide us with extra details and comments and background information.Internet has recently become another important source of information. It is the newest kind of mass media, combining computers, newspapers, radio and television. Its main advantage is that fresh news can appear on the screen as soon as any things happen in the real life. And we don't have to wait for the news time on TV. In addition, all the world's main newspapers and large broadcasting companies have their own sites in the Internet. And it is very convenient because we can look through the current news any time we like.power and reach of mass media at the beginning of the new millenium arc greater than ever before. The issues raised by the media will, no doubt, continue to grow in importance in the XXI century.

Exercise 2. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations.

1) Средства массовой информации; 2) становиться важной частью жизни; 3) основной/важный источник информации; 4) электронные СМИ: радио, телевидение, интернет; 5) делить на две категории; 6) печатные СМИ: журналы, газеты, книги; 7) формировать взгляды; 8) информационная, развлекательная ценность; 9) получить доступ к различным источникам информации; 10) слушать свежие, горячие новости; 11) век массовой коммуникации; 12) иметь свой сайт в интернете; 13) иметь множество преимуществ; 14) происходить в мире; 15) оказать большое влияние; 16) не представлять себе жизни без радио и газет; 17) замечательные возможности для образования; 18) текущие события; 19) видеть все своими глазами; 20) крупные радиовещательные компании; 21) время новостей; 22) реагировать на то, что происходит в реальной жизни; 23) появляться на экране; 24) обеспечивать дополнительной/фоновой информацией; 25) дать детали, комментарий, 26) новое тысячелетие; 27) становиться более значимым; 28) поднимать в прессе разные/важные вопросы.

Exercise 3.Finish the following:

1. Mass media play an ... role in our ...

. They are divided into ... and ...

. The media ... us about various ... that ... in the world.

. For many people TV is the main ... of ... .

. They ... TV because it ...

. Some people ... radio and ...

. Various magazines and ... give us ...

. The newest kind of ... is ...

. Its main ... is that ...

. Many large ... have their own ... in the ...

. We can see different ... with our own ...

. ... educates us and ...

. Thanks to ... we can know what is ... in the world every day.

Exercise 4.Translate the questions into English and answer them.

1. Что обеспечил век массовой коммуникации?

. Какие средства массовой информации вы знаете?

.Каковы функции СМИ сегодня?

.Какие ценности начинают преобладать в мире сейчас и почему?

. Чем является ТВ для миллионов людей в настоящее время?

. А что можно сказать о радио и печатных изданиях?

. Из каких источников можно узнать "горячие" новости?

. Средства массовой информации могут предоставить возможности для образования, не так ли?

. А что вы можете сказать о развлекательных программах?

. Что из себя представляет интернет?

. Какие СМИ, на ваш взгляд, наиболее популярны сейчас?

. А в будущем?

. Изменятся ли основные ценности в XXI веке?

Exercise 5.Read and translate.

1. The earliest kind of mass media was a newspaper. At the beginning it was a handwritten sheet of news that was posted up in the public places. The first printed newspaper came out in China in 700 A.D.

. The first Russian newspaper was issued in 1702 on the initiative of Peter the Great. It was entitled "Vedomosti".

. Radio appeared much later than the first newspaper. Regular radio broadcasting in our country began only in 1924.

. The very first magazine originated from the earliest newspapers and catalogs that appeared in the XVI-XVII centuries in England, France and later - in many other countries.exercises

Exercise 1.Put the verb in brackets into Present Indefinite.

  1. She (to learn) English.
  2. I (to like) music.
  3. My brother (to be) a school-boy. He (to go) to school.
  4. Michael (to do) his lessons every day.
  5. She (to live) in this house.
  6. After supper my sister (to go) for a walk.
  7. We (to visit) our grandparents very often.

8. The girl (to sing) very well.

. My father (to work) at school.

10. Usually I (to have) dinner at 3 o'clock.

. He (to want) to become a doctor.

. Our mother (to come) home very late.

. His brother (to go) in for sports.

. She (to like) reading very much.

. They often (to take) a bus.

Exercise2. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

  1. He goes to school every day.
  2. My sister works here.
  3. They eat a lot.
  4. We work every day."
  5. I come from Ukraine.
  6. He conies from Germany.
  7. They live in the USA.
  8. He plays football every day.

9. I visit my parents very often.

  1. His father works at an office.
  2. She gets up at seven o'clock.
  3. They play tennis very often.
  4. We go to the cinema on Saturdays.
  5. He wants to become a pilot.
  6. My brother watches television every night.
  7. I read newspaper every day.
  8. Her father finishes his work at six o'clock.
  9. Nick goes to bed at nine.
  10. He goes to school by bus.
  11. We skate once a week in winter.

Exercise 3. Put the verb in brackets into Present Indefinite.

  1. I (not to walk) to work every morning.
  2. She (to wash) her car once a week.
  3. We (to spend) our holidays in the country.
  4. He (not to hope) to go there.
  5. She (to go) to the theatre twice a month.
  6. Mary (not to live) near the station.
  7. You (to take) your dog for a walk?
  8. She always (to invite) her friends to her birthday party.
  9. He (to drink) coffee every morning.
  10. Her brother (to study) in London.
  11. I (to go shopping) every day.
  12. He (to speak) Spanish?

13. I (to visit) my friend every week.

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.

1. Его младший брат ученик.

  1. Она не работает.
  2. Он всегда очень занят.
  3. Он разговаривает по-немецки?
  4. Моя мама любит классическую музыку.
  5. Они не хотят идти в кино.
  6. Где ваши родители?
  7. Она не играет в шахматы.
  8. Он никогда не просыпается рано.
  9. Она делает зарядку каждый день?
  10. Они ходят в театр раз в месяц.
  11. Я помогаю маме по хозяйству очень часто.
  12. Вы пьете кофе утром?
  13. Он редко ходит в кино.
  14. Она не читает газет.
  15. Эти девочки не работают, они учатся.

Exercise5. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

  1. My friend lives in London.
  2. Her uncle speaks French badly.
  3. It often snows in winter.
  4. He is my best friend.
  5. His parents get up very early.
  6. They listen to the news every evening.
  7. We usually spend our holidays in the country.

8. They are our relatives.

. My sister wants to become a teacher. 10. Her child likes to read the fairy-tales.

Exercise 6. Translate into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.

У меня есть сестра. Ее имя Анна. Анне девять лет. Она учится в школе в третьем классе. Анна хорошая ученица.Она получает только хорошие оценки. Анна просыпается в семь утра. Она встает, умывается, чистит зубы и делает утреннюю зарядку. В семь тридцать она завтракает. Анна уходит в школу в восемь часов. Она не едет автобусом, а идет пешком. Из школы моя сестра возвращается в три часа. Она не делает сразу уроки. Анна сначала обедает, потом идет на прогулку. Сестра начинает делать уроки в пять часов.

Exercise 7. Answer the following questions according to the model.:What does a driver do? - He drives.do drivers do? - They drive.

. I think I am ill. 2. They often visit their granny. 3. We live in Leeds. 4. You usually speak too quickly. 5. Do you like boiled potatoes? 6. Good animals always obey their masters. 7. The boys box in the gymnasium on Fridays. 8. His dogs always attack the neighbours. 9. Heavy trucks make a lot of noise.9. Write the following sentences a) in the negative,) in the interrogative.

. She understands the rule. 2. He usually has breakfast at 8 o'clock. 3. The lecture starts at 10.15.4. The flowers look fresh. 5. She usually walks in the morning. 6. He has coffee in the evening. 7. She remembers them well. 8. He plays chess very well. 9. She leaves home at 10 o'clock every day. 10. Ann misses you badly. 11. They feel very cold. 12. Tom looks sick. 13. They harvest grapes in March. 14. The last boat sails at 10 p.m. 15. That train goes very fast.10. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite.

. Oscar Wilde and Bernard Shaw (be) the most witty British writers. 2. Fishermen often (tell) tales about their catches. 3. Their children (go) to a private school. 4. Little Amanda (collect) all sorts of toy-pigs. 5. My father (like) a lot of milk in his tea and a few lumps of sugar. 6. Anything that he (say) (be) worth listening to. 7. We usually (spend) our holidays in Spain. 8. My English friends (live) in a nice house that (stand) on a hill that (overlook) lake Windermere, which (be) in the Lake District. 9. What this sentence (mean)? 10. I (live) in Tver, which (be) my native town. 11. My brother (sing) in Italian opera. 12. My sister (have) a good appetite and she always (eat) heartily. 13. Let's go outside. It (be) terribly hot in the house. 14. What you (see) over there? 15. In England the traffic (keep) to the left but on the Continent it (keep) to the right. 16. This map (be) the largest that we (have). 17. They often (come) to see me in my town house. 18. The twittering of birds in the trees in spring (be) a pleasant sound.11. Answer the questions using the Present Indefinite.

. What time do you go to the Institute? (generally, usually) 2. What do you do on Sunday mornings? (often) 3. How do you spend your leisure time? (usually, occasionally) 4. What sort of radio programmes do you listen to? (usually, often, always) 5. How do you help your parents? (always, sometimes, usually) 6. What sort of films do you enjoy? (nearly always) 7. Where do you read for your examinations? (normally, sometimes) 8. Where do you have your meals? (usually, sometimes) 9. What do you take if you have a headache? (generally, usually) 10. How do you celebrate your birthday? (nearly always, occasionally)12. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form.: The lecture begins at 10 o'clock (begin).many languages do you speak (you/speak)?

  1. What time(the museums/open) in St. Petersburg?
  2. I have a bike but I(not/use) it very often.
  3. How many cups of tea(you/drink) a day?
  4. "What(you/do)?" - "I am a chemical engineer."
  5. "Where (your father/come) from?" - "He(come) from Minsk."
  6. If you need help, why(you/not/ask) for it?
  7. I(play) the guitar, but I(not/play) very well.

Exercise 13. Make questions. Begin the questions using the word(s) in brackets.:Bob plays chess. (How often)? How often does Bob play chess?get up early. (What time/usually?) What time do you usually get up?

  1. Felix watches birds. (How often?)
  2. I write to my parents. (How often?)
  3. I have dinner in the evening. (What time/usually?)
  4. She works. (Where?)
  5. I go to the Zoo. (How often?)
  6. People do stupid things. (Why?)
  7. The motor breaks down. (How often?)

Exercise 14. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.

1. Я обычно делаю домашнее задание вечером. 2. Мой друг живет на Севере. 3. Моя сестра учится в медицинском колледже. 4. У них два занятия иностранным языком в неделю. 5. Он всегда навещает нас, когда бывает в Москве. 6. "Сколько времени вы тратите на дорогу домой?" - "Как правило, я трачу на дорогу домой около тридцати минут."7. Он теперь редко путешествует. 8. Вы часто ходите в кино? 9. Она никогда не опаздывает. Она всегда приходит вовремя. 10. "Вы чувствуете что-нибудь?" - "Нет, я ничего не чувствую."11. Его отец - инженер. Он строит мосты. 12. Я не учу французский язык, я учу немецкий. 13. Теперь мы редко с ними встречаемся. 14. Ее муж часто ездит в командировки?

Exercise 15. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite.

(USUALLY) 1. My working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes. At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My father and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o'clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).2. My sister (to get) up at eight o'clock. 3. She (to be) a schoolgirl. She (to go) to school in the afternoon. 4. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 5. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 6. After breakfast she (to go) to school. 7. It (to take) him two hours to do his homework. 8. She (to speak) French well.16. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite.

(USUALLY) 1.Andrea Schatzmann, an exchange student from Switzerland, (to live) with the Connor family in San Francisco. She (to get) up at 7 am and (to take) a shower. She normally (not to have) breakfast. At half past seven she (to catch) the bus. Her first class (to start) at a quarter past eight. She always (to have) lunch at 12 o'clock in the cafeteria. The cafeteria food (to be) OK and it (to be) cheap too. Her afternoon classes (to be) from 1.15 till 3.00 pm, so she (to be) at school all day. She usually (to have) dinner with the Connors at about 8.00. On Saturdays she (to have) lunch at the restaurant. Once a week, usually on Sunday mornings, she (to go) swimming. A few friends usually (to go) along, too. One of her friends has got a car, so he (to pick) them up and then he (to drive) them home. After swimming they often (to go) out for a pizza. On Saturday evenings she sometimes (to go) out with friends to a party or maybe to a concert. Sometimes she (to invite) friends to her house and they (to listen) to music and (to talk). Mr and Mrs Connor often (to take) them for a camping weekend to the seaside or to the mountains. From time to time she (to call) her family in Switzerland. They never (to talk) for very long because it (to be) expensive. She usually (to call) on Sundays because it (to be) cheaper then. 2. What time Andrea usually (to get) up? 3. When she (to catch) the bus? 4. She (to take) a shower in the morning? 5. She (to go) home for lunch? 6. When she (to go) swimming? 7. How she (to get) to the pool? 8. What she (to do) on Saturday evenings?17. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.

(ОБЫЧНО) 1. Я работаю. 2. Мы работаем. 3. Они не работают. 4. Вы работаете? - Да. 5. Он работает? - Нет. Он учится. 6. Мой брат не учится. Он работает. 7. Ты носишь очки? 8. Вы помогаете людям? 9. Он любит читать сказки? 10. Она любит играть на скрипке? 11. Моя сестра не читает книг. 12. Наша бабушка любит спать на диване. 13. Вы любите отдыхать в кресле? 14. Мы едим и пьем в кухне. 15. Мой брат не любит читать газеты. 16. Мы спим в спальне. 17. Мой брат спит на диване в жилой комнате. 18. Моя сестра одевается перед зеркалом. 19. Мой дядя пишет книги. 20. Мы пишем упражнения в школе. 21. Я трачу свои карманные деньги на мороженое. 22. Он читает все время и не любит смотреть телевизор.

Exercise 18. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.

1.Где ты живешь? - Я живу в Москве. 2. Когда у тебя каникулы? - В январе. 3. Что тебе больше всего нравится в школе? 4. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает в двадцать минут восьмого. Он работает утром и днем. Вечером он не работает. Вечером он отдыхает. 5. Твоя сестра говорит по-французски? - Нет. Она говорит по-немецки, а ее муж; говорит по-английски. 6. Когда вы встаете? - Я встаю без четверти семь. 7. Когда встает твой брат? - Он встает без двадцати восемь. - А твоя сестра тоже встает без двадцати восемь? - Нет. Мой брат ходит в школу, а моя сестра не ходит в школу. Она еще не ученица. Она встает в девять часов. 8. Он не моет руки перед едой. 9. Этот мальчик свистит в классе. 10. Он не играет ни на каком музыкальном инструменте. 11. Они играют в футбол и любят смотреть мультфильмы. 12. Они любят школьные каникулы, особенно летние. 13. День рождения у девочки 31 декабря. 14. Поэтому она получает много подарков.

Exercise 19. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.

Мой дядя - инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день начинается рано утром. Он встает в семь часов. Он умывается, одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его жена - врач. Она работает в больнице. Вечером она изучает французский язык. Она посещает курсы французского языка. Мой дядя не говорит по-французски. Он говорит по-русски и по-немецки. Он изучает английский язык. Вечером он посещает курсы английского языка. Сын моего дяди - ученик. Он ходит в школу. В школе он изучает английский язык.

UNIT IVPress1.Read and give a summary of the text.press is usually referred to as "the Fourth Power" after the government's legislative, executive and judicial branches.role of the press as an activist, reformer, exposer and independent monitor of power is very significant. The press has been ideally positioned to provide the information that people need to know in order to participate in public affairs. It is an important instrument of open debates and discussions in any society. And in this context, the press independence is of paramount importance because the free press expands freedom and strengthens democracy.the press must assert the core values, that focus on the needs of people, and meet new demands.press denotes newspapers and periodicals that open up for the public unprecedented levels of access to any kind of information.can cover a greater range of events and news, and in more details, than radio and TV. They present and comment on the issues of public importance. They also shape people's opinions and have great effect on their views.are collections including different articles and stories, fiction and poetry, illustrations, horoscopes, crosswords, etc. They may focus on the events of the current week (weeklies) or month (monthlies), providing a great deal of information in such spheres as culture, religion, science, technology, medicine, economics and business, sports, hobbies, tourism, etc.

Exercise 2. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations.

1) Четвертая власть; 2) исполнительная, судебная, законодательная ветви правительства; 3) значительная роль; 4) предоставлять любую информацию; 5) быть в идеальном положении; 6) периодика, газеты; 7) реформатор и независимый наблюдатель; 8) принимать участие в делах государства; 9) проза и поэзия; 10) иллюстрации и гороскопы; 11) потребности народа; 12) охватывать широкий диапазон событий; 13) формировать общественное мнение и взгляды; 14) представлять первостепенное значение; 15) открывать беспрецедентный уровень доступа к информации; 16) независимая пресса; 17) отвечать новым требованиям; 18) укреплять демократию; 19) дискуссии в обществе; 20) отстаивать главные ценности; 21) включать различные статьи и рассказы; 22) потребности народа; 23) открытые дебаты; 24) давать комментарий и новости; 25) охватывать широкий диапазон событий; 26) еженедельник, ежемесячник; 27) события текущей недели; 28) вопросы общественного значения.

Exercise 3.Give a synonym for each of the words.

1) Important, 2) to name, 3) main, 4) to take part, 5) to defend, 6) to concentrate, 7) requirement, 8) influence, 9) different, 10) to comprise, 11) control, 12) discussion, 13) to embrace, 14) primary, 15) to mean.4.Answer the following questions.

. How is the press usually called?

. What is its main role?

. The press is often called an important instrument of debates, isn't it? Why?

. Must the press be independent or not?

. What values should it focus on?

. What does the press denote?

. What are the functions of newspapers?

. And what about periodicals?

. What do they differ in?

. What is their importance?

Exercise 5.Read and translate.

Do you know?are about 500 TV companies, both public and private, over 245 radio stations, 25 000 newspapers and magazines, both official and unofficial, and about 250 news agencies in the Russian Federation.by the latest opinion polls, more than 90% of our country population watch TV as the main source of information; 75% are regular readers of various local and national papers and periodicals; 72% use the Internet; 24% listen to the radio.6.Read and give a summary of the text.are dozens, often hundreds, of various newspapers in every country. As a rule, they include daily and weekly papers, national and local papers, evening and Sunday papers, etc.newspapers are usually divided into two formats: broadsheets (or quality papers) and tabloids (or populars). They differ, first of all, in size, cost and circulation. The populars arc smaller in size, cheaper, but have the largest circulations compared with the quality papers. Besides, both types of newspapers vary in a kind of language and photos they use. They appeal to people with different interests and tastes. And, of course, they approach the news and events in different ways.broadsheets provide their readers with the in-depth information and background reports. They usually deal with the major national and international events and news, with the world of politics and business. They also include arts and sport reviews and advertising blocks. They are addressed to the educated readers.tabloids, basically, try to entertain, amuse or even shock their readers. They have lots of illustrations, various sensational stories about the private life of many famous people, film or pop stars, news reviews, horoscopes, etc.newspapers cannot afford to have their own reporters because journalists are very expensive, especially abroad. That's why they get most of their news from various news agencies, that are large organizations, having their reporters all over the world. Every day these agencies collect various information and breaking news from their reporters and sell them to newspapers, magazines, TV and radio stations of different countries.present, the world's most known news agencies are: the Reuters (the UK), the Associated Press (the USA), the RIA-NOVOSTI and ITAR TASS (Russia), the EPA (European Press Agency, Germany), the France Press (France) and some others. They are worldwide, multi-lingual, multimedia news agencies, having thousands of their reporters in all parts of the Globe as well as large staffs, working 24 hours a day.

Exercise 2. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations.

1) серьезная газета/газета большого формата; 2) газета малого формата/бульварная газета; 3) главные международные события; 4) обзор новостей; 5) освещать события по-разному; 6) мир политики/ бизнеса/рекламы; 7) отличаться по размеру и цене; 8) огромный тираж; 9) спортивное обозрение; 10) обеспечивать своих читателей подробной информацией; 11) люди разных вкусов и интересов; 12) использовать разный стиль (язык); 13) обращаться к образованному читателю; 14) предназначать для широкой публики; 15) развлекать и забавлять людей; 16) рассказы о личной жизни известных людей; 17) включать фото, гороскопы, кроссворды и множество иллюстраций; 18) шокировать читателей сенсационными историями; 19) заниматься рекламой; 20) собирать и продавать различную информацию; 21) крупные радиостанции и телекомпании; 22) позволять себе большой штат служащих; 23) крупные агентства новостей/многомедийные и многоязычные агентства; 24) горячие новости.

Exercise3.Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information.

1.There are lots of various newspapers and magazines in the world.

.Today's press means radio and television.

.As a rule, all newspapers are issued in two formats.

.Populars are cheaper compared to quality papers.

.Broadsheets are more popular than tabloids.

.They try to amuse and shock their readers.

.Almost all tabloids contain sensational news and stories about various film and pop stars, horoscopes and games.

.Their circulations approach several million copies.

.Both quality papers and populars use the same language and photos.

.However, broadsheets are basically addressed to people, who can't read at all.

.Tabloids don't entertain the public.

.Most papers can afford to have their own reporters because they are very cheap.

.That's why they never buy any breaking news from large news agencies.4.Answer the following questions.

.What does the today's press consist of?

.What format are most newspapers issued in?

.Characterize a broadsheet.

.And what can you say about "a tabloid?

.Do quality papers and tabloids have anything in common?

.What is the difference between them?

.Where do most newspapers get breaking news?

.What are the world's largest news agency?

.What do you know about them?

.What Russian broadsheets and tabloids do you know?

.Which of them are the most popular ones?

.And where do they get information, in your opinion?exercises1.Transform into the plural:is a table in the room. There are tables in the room.

. There is a chair near the table. 2. There is a vase on the window sill. 3. There is a book in the bookcase. 4. There is an armchair in front of the TV set. 5. There is a pencil under the table. 6. There is a cup in the cupboard. 7. There is a fork among the spoons. 8. There is a bench near the blackboard. 9. There is a bottle in the cupboard. 10. There is a jug on the table.2.Transform into the singular:are plates on the table.is a plate on the table.

.There are taps above the sink. 2. There are forks on the plate. 3. There are pans in the cupboard. 4. There are knives in the table. 5. There are beds in the room. 6. There are shelves on the wall. 7. There are rugs on the floor. 8. There are spoons among the knives. 9. There are lamps on the ceiling. 10. There are desks in the room.3.Open the brackets:(to be) a book on the table. There is a book on the table.(to be) books on the table. There are books on the table.

. There (to be) books on the shelf. 2. There (to be) flowers in the vase. 3. There (to be) a magazine under the table. 4. There (to be) a fridge between the stove and the sink. 5. There (to be) chairs near the window. 6. There (to be) chairs around the table. 7. There (to be) a lamp above the table. 8. There (to be) some words in the sentence. 9. There (to be) some syllables in the word. 10. There (to be) some children in the room.4.Translate into English:столе - КНИГАHa столе - КНИГИ.is a book on the table. There are books on the table.

1. На подоконнике - цветы. 2. Посередине комнаты - стол. 3. Около кресла - пылесос. 4. Над раковиной - краны. 5. В комнате - двери. 6. В тексте - несколько абзацев. 7. На кухне - посудный шкаф. 8. На потолке - лампа. 9. В предложении - несколько слов. 10. На окнах -шторы.

Exercise 5.Open the brackets:(to be) a book on the table. There is a book on the table.(to be) books on the table. There are books on the table.

. There (to be) books on the shelf. 2. There (to be) flowers in the vase. 3. There (to be) a magazine under the table. 4. There (to be) a fridge between the stove and the sink. 5. There (to be) chairs near the window. 6. There (to be) chairs around the table. 7. There (to be) a lamp above the table. 8. There (to be) some words in the sentence. 9. There (to be) some syllables in the word. 10. There (to be) some children in the room.6.Choose the suitable translation of the sentences:

1.Maмино кресло стоит в углу.

a)There is an armchair in the corner.)The mother's armchair is in the comer.)The mother's armchair in the corner.)There was the mother's armchair in the corner.

.Baза на подоконнике.)There was a vase on the window sill.)There is a vase on the window sill.)The vase is on the window sill.)The vase was on the window sill.

.Словарь - в книжном шкафу.)The dictionary was in the bookcase.)The dictionary is in the bookcase.)There is a dictionary in the bookcase.)There was a dictionary in the bookcase.

4.B посудном шкафу - тарелки и кастрюли.

a)There are plates and pans in the cupboard.)There were plates and pans in the cupboard.)There is plates and pans in the cupboard.)There was plates and pans in the cupboard.

.В тексте - несколько абзацев.)There were some paragraphs in the text.)There are some paragraphs in the text.)Some paragraphs are in the text.)Some paragraphs in the text.7.Ask questions to the following statements, then answer them according to the pattern.: There is a good programme on TV tonight.

Is there a good programme on TV tonight?

Yes, there is.aren't any theatres in my town.

Are there any theatres in your town?

No, there are not/there aren't.

. There is a cat in the window. 2. There are a few changes in the text. 3. There are plenty of glasses in the cupboard. 4. There were a lot of people at the stadium. 5. There isn't anything on the plate. 6. There wasn't anybody in the room. 7. There are difficult exercises in this book. 8. There is something on the shelf. 9. There will be some interesting programmes on TV tomorrow. 10. There are several empty seats in the room. 11. There weren't any pears on the plate.8.Translate into English.

А. 1. В этом журнале много интересных статей. 2. В нашем городе много музеев и театров. 3. В этой комнате есть телефон? 4. В этой комнате два окна. 5. В чашке не было чая. 6. Сколько статей было в этом журнале? - Там было несколько статей. 7. Сколько студентов в аудитории? - Двадцать. 8. Рядом с нашим домом будет парк. 9. На этой улице была школа? 10. На столе лежит несколько книг

В. 1. Рядом с нашим домом есть школа. Школа находится рядом с нашим домом. 2. В городе несколько театров. Театры находятся в центре города. 3. В вазе стояли цветы. Цветы стояли в красивой вазе. 4. В театре много детей. Дети сейчас в театре.5. Существует несколько способов решения этой задачи. Способы решения этой задачи приведены на странице.

Exercise 9.Supply some, any or no for the following sentences.

. I bought ... books.

. Are there ... books, on your shelf?

. I have ... good news for you.

. Did you buy ... milk?

. Would you like ... tea?

. Have you ... pencils?

. Are there plates on the table? - There are ...

. There are ... high houses in his street.

. I want ... bread, please.

. Are there ... magazines on the shelf? - Yes, there are... .

. He has ... information for us.

. I'd like ... water, please.

. She sent me ... postcards from England.

. Did you meet ... friend yesterday?

. Are there ... new pupils in your class? - Yes, there are ....10.Supply some, any or no for the following sentences.

. There are ... new schools in my district.

. Only ... students came in time.

. She bought ... books, but she didn't buy ... magazines.

. Do you want ... milk?

. There are ... people in the streets, because it's cold.

. Would you like ... juice?

. I bought a pen but I didn't buy ... pencils.

. At this time we usually have ... food.

. Did he spend ... days in Paris?

. There is ... cheese on the plate.

. Sorry, I haven't got ... matches.

. He didn't give me ... money.

. Can you give me ... sugar?

. I've got ... oranges, but I haven't got ... apples.

. Are there ... people in this room?

. Do you learn ... foreign languages?

. We don't think we've got ... time today.11.Supply some, any or no for the following sentences.

. There is ... water in my glass. I'd like to drink.

. There are ... beautiful pictures on the walls. Look at them.

. Can I have ... more milk?

. Have you got ... friends? - Yes, I have... .

. Are there ... pencils is your pencil-box? Give me ..., please.

. She went to the shop, but she didn't buy ... eggs.

. He has read ... 20 pages.

. Did they send you ... letters from England?

. Why have ... students gone home?

. Have you found ... mushrooms in the wood?

. I'm thirsty. Give me ... tea, please.

. Have you got ... time to go to the cinema?

. Are there ... pupils in the class-room? - Yes, there are ... .

. Don't forget to buy ... sugar.

. Where did you leave ... of your books?12. Supply some, any or no for the following sentences.

. Did you have ... salt in the soup?

. I've got ... money. Give me ... money, please.

. Will you take ... of these photographs?

. They haven't got ... children.

. She doesn't like ... apples.

. Are there ... fruit-trees in your garden?

. Did they ask you ... questions? - Yes, they asked... .

. Does he make ... mistakes in his dictations?

. My friend has bought ... new shoes.

. ... people there are very unfriendly.

. Do you like ... oranges?

. Where can I get ... cigarettes?

. They waited ... ten minutes.

. You may come at ... time.

. ... people like to spend weekend in the country.13. Supply something, anything, nothing or everything.

1.He saw ... strange in the dark.

.Have you ... to read?

.Did ... help you to do your work?

.May I draw ... I like?

.I'm all right. ... happened.

.They don't know ... about it.

.Would you like ... special for dinner?

.This pupil wants to know ... about animals.

.Will you have...to eat?

. There is ... in the box.

Exercise 14. Supply something, anything, nothing or everything.

1.Give me ... to eat, please. I'm hungry.

.I think they don't tell me ... about this accident.

.It's dark in the room. I see ...

.What are you doing? - ... special.

.You may choose ... you like.

.Did he tell you the last news? - No, he told ...

.Give me your hand, please. I didn't see ...

.... has changed in my city.

.Is there ... interesting to see in your town?

. There is ... in my pocket.

Exercise 14.Supply something, anything, nothing or everything.

1.Open the door. ... is knocking.

.... has told me the truth.

.The train was almost empty. They weren't ... on it.

.Did you invite ... to come?

.I don't see ... in this room.

.It' s very simple. ... can do that.

.... came to visit my friend when he was ill.

.I found ... bag in the street.

.... in the group did the homework.

. Did you ask ... to help you?

Exercise 15. Write the following sentences a) in the negative,) in the interrogative.

1.There are some new buildings in my town.

.Somebody has taken my pen.

.I may do everything I want.

.He has some pens in his pencil-box.

.She saw everything with her own eyes.

.Somebody is there.

.Nobody helped him.

.I don't have anything for breakfast.

.There were some apples on the table.

10.Everybody can answer this question.

.We didn't buy any vegetables.

.Everybody wanted to play football.

.Somebody phoned you yesterday.

.Nobody saw this lady.

.He doesn't want anything to eat.

Exercise 16. Translate into English.

1.У меня есть несколько английских книг.

.Послушай! Кто-то разговаривает в соседней комнате.

.Ты знаешь кого-нибудь из этой семьи?

.В классе есть кто-нибудь? - Нет, там никого нет.

.Вы знаете что-нибудь про этот случай? - Да, я кое-что знаю.

.Эту книгу вы можете приобрести в любом книжном магазине.

.Ты можешь купить все, что захочешь.

.Вы прочитали что-нибудь интересное в прошлом месяце?

.Тут был кто-нибудь вчера? - Нет, тут никого не было.

.В моей сумке ничего нет.

.Дайте мне немного воды, пожалуйста.

.Все хотели пойти в кино.

.Ты нашел что-нибудь интересное в этом журнале?

.Расскажите нам все про этого человека.

.Никто не хотел возвращаться туда на следующий день.

Exercise17. Translate into English.

1.Некоторые из нас не смогли прийти вовремя.

.Этот автор написал около 20 книг.

.Он взял немного денег и пошел в магазин.

.Кто-то прислал письмо из Лондона.

.В этом диктанте я не сделал никаких ошибок.

.Прошу, не бери тут ничего!

.Хотите кофе? - Спасибо, я не хочу ничего.

.Не стучите, там никого нет.

.Кто-нибудь из вас разговаривает по-немецки? - Никто.

.Кто-нибудь видел как она ушла?

.Я ничего не понимаю! Объясните мне все, пожалуйста.

.Этот фильм чудесный. Можешь спросить у любого, кто его видел.

.Тут есть кто-нибудь, кто может мне помочь?

.Дайте мне хлеба и молока, пожалуйста.

.Она не дала мне никаких денег.

Exercise 18.Supply somewhere, anywhere, nowhere or everywhere.

1.He put his book ... yesterday.

.Have you seen that man ...?

.I can't find my watch ....

.Where is your son? - He has gone ....

.The station isn't ... near here.

.The weather is sunny. Let's go ... .

.It's autumn. There is a lot of yellow and red leaves ... .

.I want to go ... next holydays.

. Where did you go on Sunday? - .... I stayed at home.

. Where is Nick? - He is ... in the garden.

Exercise 19. Translate into English.

1.Куда ты идешь? - Никуда.

2.Вы знаете какой-нибудь иностранный язык?

.Можешь идти куда захочешь. Никто тебя не остановит.

.У вашего друга есть какие-нибудь книги про животных?

.Я не вижу никаких ошибок в вашем диктанте.

.Некоторые из этих статей очень интересные.

.Я не думаю, что у нас есть время для обсуждения этого вопроса.

.Пожалуйста, возьмите любую книгу, которая вам нравится.

.У вас есть какие-нибудь вопросы? - Да. Есть несколько.

.Некоторые дети не любят играть в футбол.

.Пожалуйста, дайте мне мел.

.У нее есть какие-нибудь друзья в этом городе?

.Ты не можешь никуда идти. У тебя много работы.

.Никто не хотел сделать ничего плохого.

.Кто-нибудь из твоих друзей помог тебе сделать это задание?

Exercise20. Supply some, any, every or their derivatives:

.We don't see ... in the corridor.

.Please, take ... magazine you like.

.... likes to play chess.

.They didn't get ... letters yesterday.

.... likes to be ill.

.Can I have ... coffee? - Yes, you can have ....

.We haven't got ... questions.

.Can you put ... extra sugar in my tea?

.... likes to play this game: it's dull.

.... of our pupils study well.

.Have you met ... in the street? - No, I met ... .

.They didn't say ..... Supply some, any, no, every or their derivatives:

1. I am trying to find ... explanation to his behavior.

. This is a question that ... child can answer.

. There is ... strange in his appearance.

. Do you like ... ice-cream?

. Do you need ... from the shop?

. Where are ... magazines which you bought yesterday?

. We use ... water to cook soup.

. He needs to buy ... new socks.

. Could you do ... about this noise?

. My sister has just moved and she doesn't know ... in this house.

. Pass me ... slices of cheese, please.

. Does Nick still live here? - No, ... else is living here now.

Exercise 21. Translate into English.

Много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней, много газет, много мела, много снега, много лет, много картин, много музыки, много мальчиков, много девочек, много чая, много лимонов, много мяса, много комнат, много учителей, много работы, много воздуха, много птиц, много машин.

Exercise22. Use much or many.

. A don't eat ... mangoes. 2. He eats ... fish. 3. She ate so ... dessert that she is in bed today with a stomachache. 4. That man drank so ... wine, and he smoked so ... cigarettes that he has a terrible headache today. 5. Mary must not eat too ... salt because she has problems with her blood pressure. 6. My mother says I eat too ... French fries and drink too ... beer. She wants me to be healthy. 7. There is not too ... space in my flat. 8. There are ... new pictures in this room. 9. There are ... teachers at our school, and ... of them are women. 10. ... of these plays are quite new. 11. Thanks awfully for the books you sent me yesterday. - Don't mention it, it wasn't ... bother. 12. ... of her advice was useful. 13. He had ... pairs of socks. 14. Please don't put ... pepper on the meat. 15. There were ... plates on the table. 16. I never eat ... bread with soup. 17. Why did you eat so ... ice cream? 18. She wrote us ... letters from the country. 19. ... of these students don't like to look up words in the dictionary. 20. ... in this work was too difficult for me. 21. ... of their answers were excellent. 22. ... of their conversation was about the university.23. Translate into English.

Мало домов, мало чая, мало чашек, мало яблок, мало окон, мало бумаги, мало кофе, мало статей, мало радости, мало супу, мало деревьев, мало травы, мало детей, мало игрушек, мало света, мало парт, мало колбасы, мало сока, мало книг, мало цветов, мало соли, мало друзей, мало дворцов.

Exercise 24. Use little or few.

. He has got ... friends. 2. I drink ... coffee. I don't like it. 3. We must hurry. We've got very ... time. 4. There are very ... scholarships for students in this university. 5. The Smiths have ... money. They aren't rich. 6. The theatre was almost empty. There were very ... people there. 7. There was ... lemonade in the bottle. There were ... peaches in the basket. 8. I have ... time, so I can't go with you. 9. He has ... English books. 10. There is ... juice in my glass. Have you got any juice? 11. There are ... bears in the zoo. 14. The children returned from the wood very sad because they had found very ... mushrooms. 15.There was too ... light in the room, and I could not read. 16. There are very ... people who don't know that the Earth is round.25. Use much, many, little or few.

. Robert wrote so ... letters that he's never going to write a letter again. 2. She ate so ... ice cream that she's going to have a sore throat. 3. His father earned ... money, but he enjoyed his job. He loved teaching English very .... 4. There are ... cookies in the box. I should have bought them last Monday. 5. Does your sister read ... ? - Yes, she does. And your brother? - Oh, he doesn't. He has so ... books, but he reads very .... 6. Have you ... work to do today? - No, not very ... 7. Walk quicker, please.We have very ... time. 8. I am sorry to say, I have read very ... books by Walter Scott. 9. My brother is a young teacher. Every day he spends ... time preparing for his lessons. 10. I know very ... about this writer. It is the first book I am reading. 11. The pupils of our class ask ... questions at the lesson. They want to know everything. 12. You do not make ... mistakes in your spelling. Do you work hard at it? - Oh, yes, I do, I work very ... .

Exercise 26. Translate into English.

Немного денег, мало денег, несколько стульев, мало стульев, несколько песен, мало песен, немного веселья, мало веселья, мало мальчиков, немного воды, несколько человек, мало воды, мало воздуха, мало столов, несколько минут, несколько кошек, мало травы, немного удачи, несколько дней, мало работы, немного соли, несколько ложек, мало света, мало окон, несколько машин, немного сахару, мало яиц, мало сыра.

Exercise 27. Put at, in, on in the correct position.

. There is someone … the door.

. I sat down … the sofa.

. They live … Coronation street number 32.

. My book is … the table … the sitting room.

. When I was … Spain it was terribly hot.

. I've applied for a job … the United Nation … Geneva.

. There was a note … the table. It was from Elsie. She had signed her name … the bottom.

. There is a good film ... the cinema.

. It was very cold … the cinema.

. When we were … the south we stayed … a small hotel …. the coast.

. I had to return as I had forgotten to switch off the light … in the shop.

. I had a seat … the front row.28. Translate the prepositions in brackets.

1.I'll meet you (в) airport.

.They've sailed to the Pacific. They are probably (на) the Pacific now.

.When I go to the cinema I prefer to sit (на) the front row.

.Who is that woman (на) that photograph?

.Who is man standing (y) the door?

.Don't sit (нa) that armchair. It's broken. Sit (Ha) that chair.

.Portsmouth is (нa) the south coast of England.

.Our house is (в) the end of the street.

.There's a report of the football match (нa) page 7 of the newspaper.

.You'll find the sport results (нa) the back page of the newspaper.

.Turn left (y) the traffic lights.

Exercise 29. Put in a preposition of direction.

. A book fell … the shelf.

. I can't see it, hold the picture up …the light.

. The Moon travels … the Earth.

. Fish can't live … water.

. She fainted and fell …the floor.

. How far is itherethe airport?

. She was sitting with the back turned … the window.

. I enjoy looking … the window and watch the people in the street.

. The cat got … the house …the window.. Translate the words in brackets.

. He took his handkerchief (из) his pocket. 2. He threw the letter (в) the fire. 3. I have return the book (в) the library tomorrow. 4. At 6 o'clock the taxi stopped (y) the door, we got (из) it and went (нa) the station. 5. I looked (в) the window and saw a little boy running (пo) the street. 6. He has just returned (из) his flight (нa) the North. 7. He jumped (в) the river and swam about. 8. On my way home I walk (мимо) your office every day. 9. He opened the door and went out (нa) the street. 10. Italy has to import coal and oil (из) other countries. 11. I've received a letter (от) my friend, he writes that he'll soon return (нa) the South.V1. a) Read the text, try focus on its essential facts. Choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph:

) What is Education? 2) Formal Education 3) Informal Education 4) Different Kinds of Formal Education

b) Make a précis of the text, using the following phrases:

. The title of the text is... 2. The text is about... The text deals with... 3. The text covers such points as... 4. It should be underlined that... 5. in conclusion, I may say that... 6. To my mind... 7.In my opinion...AND FORMAL EDUCATIONincludes different kinds of learning experiences. In its broadest sense, we consider education to be/the ways in which people learn skills, gain knowledge and understanding about the world and about themselves. One useful scheme for discussing education is to divide these ways of learning into two types: informal and formal.education involves people in learning during their daily life. For example, children learn their language simply by hearing and by trying to speak themselves. In the same informal manner, they learn to dress themselves, to eat with good manners, to ride a bicycle, or to make a telephone call. Education is also informal when people try to get information or to learn skills on their own initiative without a teacher. To do so, they may visit a book shop, library or museum. They may watch a television show, see a videotape, or listen to a radio programme. They do not have to pass tests or exams.consider formal education to be the instruction given at different kinds of schools, colleges, universities. In most countries, people enter a system of formal education during their early childhood. In this type of education, the people, who are in charge of education, decide what to teach. Then learnersthose things with the teachers at the head. Teachers expect learners to come to school regularly and on time, to work at about the same speed as their classmates, and to pass tests and exams. Learners have to pass the exams to show how well they have progressed in their learning. At the end of their learning, learners may earn a diploma, a certificate, or a degree as a mark of their success over the years.school systems of all modern nations provide both general and vocational education. Most countries also offer special education programmes for gifted or for physically or mentally handicapped children. Adult education programmes are provided for people who wish to take up their education after leaving school. Most countries spend a large amount of time and money for formal education of their citizens. Read and give a summary of the text.AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATIONeducation aims at producing intelligent, responsible, well-informed citizens. It is designed to transmit a common cultural heritage rather than to develop trained specialists.all elementary education is general education. In every country, primary school pupils are taught skills they will use throughout their life, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. They also receive instruction in different subjects, including geography, history, etc. In most countries almost all young people continue their general education in secondary schools.aim of vocational education is primarily to prepare the students for a job. Some secondary schools specialize in vocational programmes. Technical schools are vocational secondary schools, where students are taught more technical subjects, such as carpentry, metalwork, and electronics. Technical school students are required to take some general education courses and vocational training. Universities and separate professional schools prepare students for careers in such fields as agriculture, architecture, business, engineering, law, medicine, music, teaching, etc.3. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) в широком смысле; 2) обучаются навыкам; 3) получают знания; 4) о себе; 5) полезная схема;6) официальный; 7) неофициальный; 8) повседневная жизнь; 9) например; 10) слушая; 11) стараясь; 12) с хорошими манерами; 13) ездить на велосипеде; 14) звонить по телефону; 15) по их собственной инициативе; 16) книжный магазин; 17) сдавать экзамены; 18) в большинстве стран; 19) раннее детство; 20) кто отвечает (в ответственности); 21)во главе; 22) во время; 23) приблизительно одинаковой скоростью; 24) одноклассники; 25)должны сдавать экзамены; 26) степень; 27) оценка их успеха; 28) одаренные дети; 29) дети с физическими или умственными недостатками; 30) обучение для взрослых; 31) продолжить после окончания школы; 32) большое количество денег; 33) граждане; 34) общее образование; 35) профессиональное образование; 36) ставит целью; 38) умный; 39) ответственный; 40) хорошо информированный; 41) передавать общее культурное наследство; 42) больше чем; 43) подготовленные специалисты;44) начальное образование;45) на протяжении всей жизни; 46) средние школы; 47) профессиональные программы; 48) плотничное дело; 49) слесарное дело; 50) профессиональная подготовка; 51) отдельный; 52)техника; 53) юриспруденция.

Exercise 4. a) Find in the texts the words, which have the similar meanings as the following words:contain, to believe, the means, to study, to get, a kind, to talk, data, various, to be responsible for, a diploma, to want, to continue;) Find in the texts the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following words:, narrow, bad, different, the beginning, old, to give up, small, before.4. Fill in the gaps with the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you:

. T... their life people are learning different kinds of skills. 2. They g... knowledge about the world. 3. We'll discuss the education using one useful s... 4. Children learn to r... a bicycle. 5. On their own i..., people may visit a museum. 6. The students have to p... exams. 7. They are in c... of education. 8. The students are working at about the same s... 9. Learners may e... a degree. 10. His certificate is a m... of his success over the years.5. Find in the texts, translate, and analyse:) grammar forms with the ending -ing:of learning experiencesgain understanding about the worldscheme for discussingways of learningpeople in learninghearing and by trying to speak themselvestheir learningleaving schooleducation aims at producingas reading, writing, and arithmeticdifferent subjects, including geography) grammar forms with the ending -ed:have progressed for gifted childrenphysically and mentally handicapped children programmes are provided well-informed citizens it is designed) grammar forms with the ending -s:includes the school systemskindsall modern nationslearn skillstheir citizensways of learning general education aims attypes trained specialistseducation involves different subjectsgood mannerssecondary schoolspass exams and tests vocational programmes, colleges, universitiestechnical schoolsmost countries technical subjectsstudyfor careersin such fieldsthe years. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:

. Education includes different kinds of ...

. People gain knowledge and understanding about ...

. There are two types of...

. Informal education involves people in ...

. Children learn their language simple by ...

. People get information or learn skills on ...

. Formal education is the instruction given at ...

. People enter a system of formal education during ...

. Teachers expect learners to come to school ...

. Learners have to pass the exams to show ...

. General education aims at producing intelligent ...

. Primary school pupils are taught skills they will...

. Almost all young people continue their general education in ...

. Vocational education prepares the students for ...

. Learners may earn a diploma, a certificate, or ...7. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:

. There are two types of education. 2. One useful scheme for discussing education is to divide the ways of learning into two types. 3. Informal education involves people in learning during their daily life. 4. Formal education is the instruction given at different kinds of colleges. 5. At the end of learning, learners do not earn a diploma or a certificate.Exercises1. Read the following verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense.

А. looked, worked, helped, talked, liked, hoped, missed, developed, stopped, noticed, discussed, danced, passed, pronounced, practised, addressed, introduced, checked, watched, wished.. lived, trained, used, studied, listened, turned, showed, entered, answered, enjoyed, played, opened, loved, believed, borrowed, occupied, described, Continued, involved, ironed, copied, married, changed, engaged, organized, specialized, realized.. decided, included, attended, depended, sounded, founded, mended, offended, attracted, wanted, consisted, instructed, directed, translated, devoted, expected, conducted, graduated, waited, insisted.2.Give three forms of the verbs., write, take, give, drive, have, be, go, come, get, put, understand, make, fall, feel, awake, bring, ring, run, sit, set, think, drink, find, throw, hit, hurt, buy, cost, send, say, tell, speak, seek, hear, see, win, ride, catch, hide, let, burst, broadcast.3. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.

. That afternoon Lily came home early from school. 2. In three days Mr. Ruggles received an answer. 3. Mr. Watkins; drove a lorry and took goods to Salthaven. 4. She found the key in its usual place. 5. Kate walked slowly home, wondering how to break the bad news. 6. Sunday passed peacefully. 7. Jim began to run. 8. Last August we found a blackbirds nest. 9. They accused him of spying. 10. On her knee Mrs. Lawrence held a bright red handbag. 11. There was a long silence. 12. The sea was only two miles away.4. Use the verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense.

. He (to lose) his balance and (to fall). 2. Ann's grandfather (to found) his firm in 1901. 3. Clearing out the room I (to find) these old letters. 4. The lion (to jump) and (to spring) at her. 5. I suddenly (to see) a face in the window. 6. The train (to start off) with a jerk. 7. The police (to open) fire and (to wound) two criminals. 8. He (to lie) there for an hour till someone finally (to hear) his cries for help. 9. We (to meet) last summer. 10. I (to decide) to stay with my uncle until I (to find) a flat. 11. As it (to grow) darker, we (to find) it hard to walk. 12. The critic (to write) a very bad review of my play. 13. We (to go) for a walk every day before lunch. 14. It (to happen) a long time ago.5. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.

1.I (to watch) television at seven o'clock every evening.

2.I (to watch) television yesterday.

.She (to comb) her hair every morning.

.Yesterday she (to comb) her hair.

.They (not to rest) yesterday.

.Yesterday he (to have) a holiday. He (not to go) to the office. He (to get) up at eleven o'clock, (to wash) his face, (to have) breakfast and (to go) for a walk.

8.As a rule my mother (to cook) dinner. But yesterday she (to decide) not to cook. She (to invite) us to the restaurant.

9.He (not to like) coffee. But yesterday he (to drink) a cup of coffee as he (to be) very tired.

10.You often (to take) your brother for a walk? - Yes. - Why you (not to take) him for a walk the day before yesterday? - He (to be) ill.

Exercise 6. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.

.They (to be) in London last month.

2.Who of your friends (to speak) English?

.How many lessons you (to have) every day?

4.I (not to be) at home yesterday, I (to go) for a walk.

5.He usually (to sleep) well. But last night he (to sleep) bad.

6.Your sister (to be) a doctor? - Yes, she (to become) a doctor two years ago.

7.He (not to shave) today because he (not to have) time.

8.You (to get) up early on Sunday? - Yes. But last Sunday I (to sleep) till ten o'clock.

9.When you (to leave) the meeting yesterday?

10.She (to enjoy) the film, which we (to see) last week?

11.Why your parents (to be) so angry last night? - Because my brother (to be) late.7. Write the text in Past Indefinite.

Не gets up at seven o'clock. He washes his face, cleans his teeth and combs. He goes to the kitchen and has his breakfast. For breakfast he has a cup of coffee and cheese. When the breakfast is over, he goes to the office. He takes a bus to get to his work.the office he works till two o'clock. At two o'clock he has dinner. He finishes his work at seven o'clock in. the evening. He decides to walk a little after his working day. He returns home at nine. He doesn't want to have supper, he only drinks tea. Suddenly he remembers that he has to phone his friend. He dials the numbers that he has to phone his friend. He dials the number but nobody answers. His friend is not at home. He goes to his room and decides to watch TV. When the TV programme is over, he sleeps.8. Write the text in the Past Indefinite Tense.weather is bad. There is no sun in the sky. Beth wakes up late in the morning. She doesn't want to leave the bed. She stays in her bed for some time. But Beth is hungry. She wants something to eat. She makes herself to get up, and goes to the bathroom. She washes and cleans her teeth. Beth goes to the kitchen and has her breakfast. After breakfast she thinks how to spend her day. Suddenly the telephone rings. Her friend Tom phones. Tom says he has two tickets to the theatre and he invites her to go and see the play. Beth thanks him and agrees to go to the theatre. The play begins at twelve. She has only two hours to dress and to get to the theatre. Beth doesn't know what to put on in such a bad weather. She thinks for some minutes and chooses her new beautiful dress! The weather is bad but she is in a good mood.9. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.

1.His mother (to be) a housewife.

2.They (to be) happy to see you now?

3.You (to write) the test yesterday.

4.She (not to go) to school. She (to be) ill.

5.His brother (to come) yesterday? - No, he (not to come). He (to be) busy.

6.They (to have) a nice weekend last week.

7.Yesterday he (to get) home and (to take) his dog for a walk.

8.You often (to go) to the theatre? - Not very often. Usually we (to go) there once a month.

9.Why Susan (not to notice) us last night? - We (to be) in the shadow and she (not to see) us.

10.What animals you (to like) better: cats or dogs?

11.She (to buy) a new dress two days ago? - No, she (not to buy) it.

12.What your sister (to do) every Sunday? - She (to meet) with her friends.

13.He (not to understand) the teacher at the last lesson.

14.Last month we (to move) to other place.

15.She (to be) ill now. She (to eat) an ice-cream yesterday.

16.They (to sell) their house a week ago? - I (not to know).

17.My grandmother often (to forget) her spectacles in her room when she (to leave) the house.

18.Can you tell me what the weather (to be) like?

19.I (to be) in this town last year.

20.Her daughter (to draw) very well.

Exercise 10. Read a sentence about the present and then write a sentence about the past.: Granny usually gets up at 6.30. Yesterday she got up at 6.30.

1.Granny usually wakes up early. Yesterday morning _____________________

2.Granny usually walks in the garden. Yesterday _________________________

.Granny usually has a sandwich for lunch. Yesterday_____________________

.Granny usually goes out in the evening. Yesterday evening _______________

.Granny usually sleeps very well. Yesterday ____________________________11. Put one of these verbs in each sentence:, teach, spend, sell, throw, fall, catch, buy, cost.: I was thirsty, so I bought apple juice in the shop.

1.My fatherme how to drive when I was 17.

2.James _________ down the stairs and _________ his leg.

3.We needed some money so we ____________ our summer house.

4.They ______ a lot of money yesterday. They _______ a dishwasher which ___

10000 roubles.

5.The boy _____________the ball to the dog and the dog _______________ it.

Exercise 12. Write questions. A friend has just come back from Italy and you are asking him about it.: What place/go to? What place did you go to?weather/fine? Was the weather fine?

1.how long/stay there? ______________________________________

2.stay at a hotel? __________________________________________

3.go alone? _____________________

4.how/travel? _____________________________________________

5.the food/good? ___________________________________________

6.what/do in the evenings? __________________________________

7.make any friends there? _____________________________________

Exercise 13. Put the verb into the correct form. All the sentences are past.: I didn't go (not/go) to the park yesterday because the weather wasn't (not/be) very good.

1.I ________ (not/have breakfast) this morning because I(not/

have) time.

2.We_______(not/buy) anything because we _________(not/have) any money.

3.I __________ (not/sleep) because I ______________(not/feel) sleepy.

4.She _____ (not/be) interested in the book because she _____(not/understand) it.

Exercise 14. Complete the sentence with used to.: He doesn't play the piano any more but he used to play every day.

1.She doesn't eat sweets now but shethem every day.

2.Miranda _______ my colleague but we don't work together any longer.

3.We live in Sussex now but wein Scotland.

4.Now there is one cinema in our town but therefive.

5.When they were young theyour garden but they don't like it now.

6.Melly walks everywhere now. Shea horse.15. Translate into English using the Past Indefinite Tense.

1. Мы начали этот опыт на прошлой неделе. 2. Они вернулись домой в 7 часов вечера. 3. Мы решили послать это письмо вчера. 4. Кому вы отдали эти журналы? 5. Вчера я встретил Стива в библиотеке. 6. Когда вы его видели в последний раз? - В прошлый вторник. 7. В прошлом году мы не изучали французский. Мы изучали английский. 8. В котором часу вы начали работать вчера? - После обеда. У нас было мало работы. 9. Погода была хорошая, и мы с друзьями пошли в парк. 10. Где вы были час тому назад? 11. Я встретил ее позавчера, и она рассказала мне об этом.

Exercise 16. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.

. What your neighbours (to do) yesterday? 2. Mr Smith (to fix) his car yesterday morning. 3. His wife (to water) plants in the garden. 4. Their children (to clean) the yard and then they (to play) basketball. 5. In the evening their boys (to listen) to loud music and (to watch) TV. 6. Their little girl (to cry) a little and then (to smile). 7. Her brothers (to shout) at her. 8. Mrs Smith (to work) in the kitchen. 9. She (to bake) a delicious apple pie. 10. She (to cook) a good dinner. 11. She (to wash) the dishes and (to look) very tired. 12. The children (to brush) their teeth, (to yawn) a little and (to go) to bed. 13. Their mother (to change) her clothes and (to brush) her hair. Then she (to talk) on the phone. 14. Her husband (to smoke) a cigarette and (to talk) to his wife. 15. They (to wait) for the bus. The bus (to arrive) at 9 o'clock. 16. They (to visit) their friends. 17. They (to dance) a lot there. 18. Mr and Mrs Smith (to rest) very well last night. They really (to have) a wonderful time with their friends.17. Write the text in the Past Indefinite Tense.Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At this lesson we write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers well and gets a "five". Pete does not get a "five" because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not go home at once. I go to the library and change my books. Then I go home.18. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.

. His sister (to study) English every day. 2. She (to study) English two hours ago. 3. You (to come) home at six o'clock yesterday? - No, I ... . Yesterday I (to come) home from school at half past eight. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family. After dinner I (to be) very thirsty. I (to drink) two cups of tea. Then I (to rest). 4. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 5. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 6. My brother (to wash) his face every morning. 7. Last night he (to wash) his face with soap and water. 8. I (not to have) history lessons every day. 9. We (not to rest) yesterday.10. My brother (not to drink) coffee yesterday.11.My mother always (to take) a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus. Yesterday she (to walk) to her office. 12. You (to talk) to the members of your family every day? - Yes, I ... . But yesterday I (not to talk) to them: I (to be) very busy yesterday. 13. Your sister (to go) to school every day? - Yes, she ... . 14. Mary (to like) writing stories. 15. Last week she (to write) a funny story about her pet. 16. You (to tell) your mother the truth about the money? 17. You (to wear) your polka-dot dress to work? - Yes, I .... I (to wear) it yesterday. 18. We (to like) to go to the beach. We (to enjoy) swimming in the ocean last weekend.19. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.

. Tom always (to eat) breakfast. 2. Yesterday he (not to eat) breakfast because he (to get) up late. 3. We (to like) to cook but we (not to like) to wash the dishes. 4. He never (to shout) at his students. He (to be) a wonderful teacher, I remember. 5. My friend (to know) Spanish very well. 6. Who (to ring) you up an hour ago? 7. He (to live) on the third floor. 8. It (to take) you long to find his house yesterday? 9. When your lessons (to be) over on Monday? 10. I (to have) dinner with my family yesterday. 11. Her friends (to be) ready at five o'clock. 12. One of her brothers (to make) a tour of Europe last summer. 13. Queen Elizabeth II (to be) born in 1926. She (to become) Queen of England in 1952. 14. You always (to get) up at seven o'clock? - No, sometimes I (to get) up-at half past seven. 15. Antonio Stradivari (to make) wonderful violins. 16. Who (to paint) the world-known picture "Mona Lisa"? 17. She (to know) all the works of Chopin. She (to enjoy) listening to his waltz last night. 18. Steven's friends (to come) to his birthday party last night and (to give) him wonderful presents. His parents (to cook) a special dinner for him. His girlfriend (to promise) to come, but she (not to be) there. He (to try) to phone, but he couldn't get through. He (to be) really upset. Only she (not to wish) him a Happy Birthday.20. Complete the sentences with the prepositions of time.

1. I start work8 o'clock. 2. I'm going on holidayOctober. 3. Where will you be Christmas? 4. Are you busy the moment? 5. I always feel bred _____ the evening. 6. Goodbye! I'll see you _____a few days. 7. We are going to the country______the weekend. 8. I don't work _____ Saturdays. 9. I didn't sleep well last night, somebody calledmidnight. 10. I left school1994 and entered the Universitythe 1st of September 1995. 11. Are you doing anything __________ Saturday evening? 12. We metlunch ___________ Monday and haven't seen him since. 13. In Russia children go to school ___________ the age of seven. 14. The Christmas holidays start _________ the end of January. 15. ______ that daynobody worked at the office. 16. We met _______ the spring of 1945. 17. I'll be back I _________ a few minutes. 18. We livethe 21st century. 19. I'm meeting Jill ________ Monday morning.

Exercise 21. Put in prepositions of time if necessary.

1. I don't workMondays, but _______ last Monday I had to work, we're fullthe end of the month. 2. I'm leaving ________ Friday, I go to my country house _______ every other Friday. 3. Will you be at home ________ this evening? - I'm afraid not, let's meet __________ the afternoon. 4. We usually go to France ________ summer, but it has become so crowded there that we decided to go to Spain __________ this summer. 5.I don't often go out ________ night, but ________ this night is a special one, my son is gettingmarried. 6. I phone Robert _______ every Sunday, that's the first time I didn't manage it __________ Sunday.

Exercise 22. Translate into Russian.the lecture, during the war, during the meeting, for five years, for a week, for ten minutes, for a year, before breakfast, after dinner, after classes, from 3 till 5, from Monday till Friday, from morning till night, by 9 o'clock, by tomorrow, by the end of the week, on Wednesday, on a warm summer day, on the first of September, at 11 o'clock, at night, in 15 minutes, in 10 days, in a year's time, in the morning, in winter, in March, in January.

Exercise23. Translate intoEnglish.

с утра до вечера, во время каникул (holidays), в это время, в течение многих лет, в 10 часов, с восьми до девяти, с десяти до одиннадцати, через 5 минут, в 2006 году, летом, осенью, в мае, утром, вечером, с понедельника до субботы, в воскресенье, в декабре, весной, через год, в течение 3 часов, днем, в декабре, весной, через год, в течение 3 недель, днем, через 10 дней, ночью, до занятий, после урока, во время урока, до обеда, после завтрака.24. Translate into English.

В четыре часа, в половине шестого, без четверти три, на закате, в четверть пятого, в полночь, в пять минут шестого, без десяти два, в полдень, на восходе солнца, в двадцать пять третьего.

Exercise 25. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions.

. I get up ... seven o'clock or ... a quarter past seven. 2. ... Sunday I usually get up ... nine o'clock or ... half past nine. But last Sunday I slept very long and got up only ... noon. 3. My birthday is ... the ninth of July. 4. The school year begins ... the first of September. 5. ... the twenty-fifth of December people celebrate Christmas. 6. ... Wednesday I usually have a lot of homework. 7. Lev Tolstoy liked to get up ... sunrise. 8. Our lessons are usually over ... twenty minutes to two. 9. They returned from the wood ... sunset. 10. I began writing my composition ... seven o'clock and finished only ... midnight.VI. a) Read the text and try to focus on its essential facts. Choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph:

) Specific Features of Different Cultures 2) What is Culture? 3) Common Features of Different Cultures) Make a précis of the text, using the following phrases:

. The title of the text is... 2. The text is about... The text deals with... 3. The text covers such points as... 4. It should be underlined that... 5. In conclusion, I may say that... 6. To my mind... 7. In my opinion...CULTUREis a term, which is used by social scientists for a people's whole way of life. In its narrow meaning, culture is activities in such fields as art, literature, and music. Social scientists consider that a people's culture consists of all ideas, objects, and ways how people create things. Culture includes arts, beliefs, customs, inventions, language, technology, and traditions. The term "civilization" is similar, but it refers mostly to scientifically more advanced ways of life. A culture is any way of life, simple or complex.cultures have features that result from basic needs, which are shared by all people. Every culture has methods of obtaining food and shelter. There is also a way to keep order: a system of police, courts, and prisons. Every culture has ways to protect itself against invaders. It also has family relationships, religious beliefs. All societies have forms of artistic expression, such as painting, music, etc. In addition, each culture has some type of scientific knowledge.differ in their details from one part of the world to another. For example, eating is a biological need. But what people eat, when and how they eat, and how food is prepared differ from culture to culture. People do not realize how greatly culture influences their behaviour until they come across other ways of doing things. People feel most comfortable within their own culture, and they prefer the company of others who share their culture. When people have to deal with persons of another culture, even small differences in behaviour may make them uneasy.2. Read and give a summary of the textTHE HISTORY OF HUMAN CULTUREfoundations for human culture developed in prehistoric times. Important steps in the growth of culture include the development of tools, the start of farming, the growth of cities, and the development of writing.development of tools began about 2 million years ago. The early human beings learned to make stone tools and kill animals for food. Prehistoric people probably made things of bone, hair, skin, and wood. The hunters also learned the habits of the animals. Such learning is a simple kind of scientific knowledge.8people had to plant crops and rear animals for food. They became the first farmers. It occurred about 9000 B.C., and it was one of the most important steps in the growth of human culture.3500 B.C., cities had appeared. People became artists and builders, judges and priests. All their new knowledge and skills made up the growth of culture.development of writing is one of the most important steps. The first system of writing was developed about 3500 B.C. People could record their thoughts and aspects of their culture and could pass them in a written form from generation to generation.3.Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) ученые в области социологии; 2) образ жизни; 3) в узком значении; 4) деятельность в таких областях как; 5) ученые считают; 6) способы создания; 7) культура включает; 8) виды искусства; 9) главным образом; 10) более продвинутый образ жизни; 11) которые являются результатом; 12) основные нужды; 13) которые разделяются всеми людьми; 14) методы получения пищи и крыши над головой; 15) поддерживать порядок; 16) суды и тюрьмы; 17) защищать себя; 18) против захватчиков; 19) семейные отношения;20) религиозные вероисповедания; 21) художественное выражение; 22) живопись; 23) вдобавок; 24) научное знание; 25) различаются в деталях; 26), например; 27) принятие пищи; 28) различается от культуры к культуре; 29) как сильно культура влияет на поведение людей; 30)встречаются с другими способами;31) в пределах своей собственной культуры; 32)вынуждены иметь дело с; 33) даже маленькая разница;34) может заставить чувствовать себя некомфортно; 35)основы человеческой культуры; 35) в доисторические времена; 36) рост культуры; 37) создание орудий труда; 38) начало ведения сельского хозяйства; 39) создание письменности; 40)древние люди; 41) каменные орудия труда; 42) для приготовления пищи;43) вероятно, изучали привычки животных; 44) научное знание;45) вынуждены были;46) выращивать урожаи; 47) выращивать животных; 48) это случилось; 49) к 3500 году до нашей эры; 50) города появились; 51) художники и строители; 52) судьи и священники; 53) знания и навыки; 54) составляли; 55) была создана; 56) могли записывать; 57) передавать в письменной форме; 58) от поколения к поколению.

Exercise 4.) Find in the texts the words, which have the similar meanings as the following words:, all, sense, progressive, main, getting, to defend, kind, to understand, to meet, uncomfortable, the beginning, perhaps;) Find in the texts the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following words, less, complex, big, easy, the end, finished, to disappear, old..Fill in the blanks with the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you:

. I don't like his w... of life. 2. The European cultures are s... . 3. But every culture has its specific f... . 4. I s... the room with my brother. 5. There are some forms of artistic e... in every culture. 6. They obtain f... and s... . 7. I have never c... a... such a word. 8. Culture influences the b... of the people. 9. We are studying English s... by s... . 10. The ancient people made things of b... and s... .. Find in the texts, translate, and analyse:) grammar forms with the ending -ed:

(грамматические формы с окончанием -ed)

is usedthe hunters learnedsharedit occurredpreparedcities had appeareddevelopedwas developedbeings learned) grammar forms with the ending -s:scientiststhe foundationspeople's whole way of life in prehistoric timesimportant stepssuch fieldsthe development of toolspeople's culture consists the growth of citiesideas, objects 2 million yearsincludes the early human beings, beliefs stone toolsreferskill animalscultures have features made thingsmethods the huntersways the habits of the animalsinvaders had to plant cropsrelationshipshad to rear animalsbeliefsthe first farmershave formsone of the important stepstheir detailscities, artists and buildersinfluences judges and priestsways skillscompany of others their thoughts and aspects7. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:

. Culture is...

. In its narrow meaning, culture is...

. Culture includes...

. The term "civilization" is...

. All cultures have features that result...

. Every culture has...

. Cultures differ...

. Culture influences...

. People feel most comfortable within...

. They prefer...

. The foundations of the human culture developed...

. The development of tools began...

. People had to...

. People became...

. People could record...8. Answer the questions about the culture:

. What does the term "culture" mean?

. What does the term "culture" mean in its narrow meaning?

. What does culture include?

. What does the term "civilization" mean?

. What common features do all cultures have?

. What forms of artistic expression do all societies have?

. What different features do all cultures have?

. When do people feel most comfortable?

. When do people feel uneasy?

. When did the foundations for human culture develop?

. What important steps in the growth of culture include?

. When did the development of tools begin?

. What did prehistoric people make things of?

. What did the hunters learn?

. When did the first farmers appear?

. When did the first cities appear?

. When was the first system of writing developed?

. What could people record then?9. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:

. Culture is a people's whole way of life. 2. Culture is activities in such fields as art, literature, and music. 3. Culture consists of arts and beliefs. 4. The terms "culture" and "civilization" are just the same. 5. Culture is a simple way of life. 6. All cultures are the same. 7. People feel most comfortable within their own culture. 8. People feel uneasy with persons of another culture. 9. The foundations for human culture developed in prehistoric times. 10. The development of writing is one of the important steps in the development of culture.exercises1. Put the verbs in brackets into Future Indefinite.

1. I (to see) them next Saturday.

. They (to be) here tomorrow.

3. We (to have) the test in a week.

4. She (to spend) holidays in the country.

. The journey (to take) three hours.

. I (to open) the door for you.

. I (to go) to school tomorrow?

. They (to come) back next week?

. We (to leave) Kyiv this evening?

. You (to wait) for me?

. Nick (to finish) school next year?

. She (to agree) with you?

. I (not to swim) tomorrow.

. He (not to play) in the garden.

. The weather (not to be) fine on Sunday.

. We (not to be) busy in the evening.

. Sheila (not to get) passport next year.

. Why your father (to help) you?

. When she (to study) English?

. How we (to get) there?

. How long the journey (to take)?

. How many people (to arrive) today?

. When you (to go) to the cinema?

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple, Present Continuous or Future Simple.

1.They (to play) football tomorrow.

2.I (not to play) croquet tomorrow.

3.We (not to stay) at home next day.

4.We (to stay) at home every Sunday.

5.He (to write) letters very often.

6.He (to write) a letter at the moment.

7.He (to write) a letter now.

8.Ann (to play) the piano.

9.Ann (to play) the piano next lesson.

10.Listen! Ann (to play) the piano.

11.You (to get) up early every day?

12.You (to get) up early next morning?

13.It's ten o'clock already! You (to get up)?

14.She (to pass) exams every year?

15.She (to pass) exams in a month?

16.She (to pass) her exam at the moment?

17.Where you (to go) every Saturday?

18.Where you (to go) now?

Exercise 3. All the sentences are future. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple or Future Simple.

1.When I (to see) him, I (to phone) you.

2.If he (to decide) not to do it, he (to be) right.

3.Tell me when she (to come) to visit you.

4.I (to give) it to him when he (to visit) us.

5.You (to pass) your exam if you (to work) hard.

6.We (to go) to the country next week if the weather (to be) fine.

7.As soon as we (to know) results, we (to inform) you.

8.Don't open the car door before it(to stop).

9.You (not like) this film when you (to see) it.

10.Wait for me till I (to return).

11.As soon as Beth (to phone) me, I (to contact) you.

12.If the weather (to be) fine, my family (to go) on a trip.

13.I (to give) a present if he (to invite) me to his birthday party.

14.Of course we (to help) you if we (not be) busy.

15.I (to see) my mother before I (to fly) to London.

16.If my daughter (not to come) in time, I (to go) without her.

17.They (to wait) until we (to come).

18.We (not to send) you the money before we (to leave).

19.If Jane (to come) to see me, we (to listen) to the music.

20.When they (to talk) to her, they (to give) her your news.4. All the sentences are future. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple or Future Simple.

1.If the weather (to be fine), the plane (to leave) in time.

2.They (to visit) their parents next month if they (to get) letter from them.

3.Jack (to miss) the train if he (not to hurry).

4.When he (to feel) better, he (to invite) us.

5.She (to finish) her work when she (to be) at the office. G. What she (to do) when she (to return) home?

7.I (to take) my child to the Zoo if I (to have) time.

8.Nick (to send) us a postcard when he (to get) to Kyiv.

9.They (not to swim) if the water (to be) cold.

10.I (not to go) for a walk before my parents (to come) home.

11.We (to phone) our son when we (to come) home.

12.Tell me when they (to arrive).

13.I (to go) to the country if it (not to snow).

14.She usually (to go) for a walk if it (not to rain).

15.He (not to do) anything if you (not to tell) him to.

16.I (to do) my homework if I (not to be) tired.

17.They (to be) very surprised, when they (to meet) him here.

18.We usually (to have) dinner at two o'clock if mother (to come) in time.

19.When my mother (to hear) it, she (to be) glad.

20.We often (to watch) TV if the weather (to be) bad.

Exercise 5. All the sentences are future. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple or Future Simple.

1. If it (to rain), we (not to leave) home.

2. Usually I (to ski) if it (to be) enough snow.

3. I (to write) him about this event if you (to tell) me his address.

. You (to read) English books if you (to study) English.

. She (to see) her brother when he (to return) from England.

. If he (to go) to the airport by car, he (to catch) a plane.

7.It's raining. As soon as we (to go) out we (to get) wet.

8. When mother (to go) shopping, she (to buy) some bread.

. You (to worry) if your children (to be) late tonight?

10. Before she (to go) out, she (to switch) off the light.

. She (to recognize) him when she (to see) him again?

12. Give Beth this book as soon as she (to come).

. You (to phone) me after you (to come)?

14. If there (not to be) coffee, I (to get) some from the shop.

Exercise 6. Use the verbs in the story in the Future Indefinite Tense where possible:is Saturday. I don't have classes, so I stay in bed later than usual. I get up at 10 and understand that it is too late to do morning exercises. At this time my Mum and Dad are not at home. I look out of the window and see them in the garden, they take away the old leaves and prepare the garden for the winter. So I go to the kitchen and make my breakfast myself. I eat my breakfast and look through the ads in the newspaper. It takes me about an hour. As usual I forget to wash up after breakfast. I go back to my room and listen to my favourite music. Then I hear the telephone ring and ran to the drawing room. My groupmate calls. He invites me to his place, but I don't want to go out. I am too lazy. At about 1 o'clock the Old Man and the Old Lady come in. They are both exhausted and angry, because my dirty dishes are still on the table. Г try to make up for it and offer to cook lunch, but my mother doesn't allow me. She says I spoil everything. I feel ashamed and promise to myself that I'll start a new life tomorrow... Tomorrow is Sunday...7. Answer the following questions:

. Will you take your exams in June? 2. Will you come to our party? 3. Will you join us for lunch? 4. Will you help them with their English? 5. Will they be happy to see us? 6. When will he know the time of our arrival? 7. What will you tell them? 8. Where will she wait for you? 9. Shall we start the discussion? 10. Shall I help you? 11. Shall we open the window? 12. Shall I translate the text? 13. What shall we do tomorrow morning? 14. What shall we have for dinner? 15. Where shall we go this evening? 16. What shall I do? 17. What time shall I wake you up? 18. Where shall we meet?8. Use Present or Future Indefinite:

. I (to hope) he (to be) at the office tomorrow. 2. When you (to give) me back my textbook? 3. I (to be) sure you (to like) the music. 4. At this time tomorrow we (to be) far from here. 5. Don't wait for me, I probably (to be) late. 6. I (to be) afraid they (to miss) you very much. 7. Where we (to meet)? 8. You (to find) a lot of interesting things in this journal. 9. How long it (to take) us to get to the airport? 10. There (to be) a lot of traffic and care (to move) very slowly, I (to suppose) we (to take) a taxi.9. Complete the dialogue using "shall," "will,""'II," "won't," "shant" with the verbs in brackets:: Where ... you (to go) for your holidays, Olga? Olga: Britain, I... (to spend) a week there.: Oh, that... (to be) fine,... it? When ... you (to leave)?: The plane to London ... (to leave) on Sunday morningI... (to have) much time to pack, I'm afraid.: What cities besides London ... you (to see)?: We ... (to visit) Oxford, Stratford-on-Avon and Bath.: What about Cambridge?: It's a pity I... (to see) Cambridge this time.: What... you (to see) in London first thing?: The centre of London, of course, with all its sights.: How long ... you (to stay) in London?: Only two days.: Oh, you ... (to see) much of London in two days, ...you?: No, of course not. But there ... (to be) a very interesting excursion by coach to Oxford.: How long ... it (to take) you to travel to Oxford by coach?: I don't know but they say it... (to take) us long.: I hope you... (to enjoy) your trip to Britain and when you return you... (to show) me the pictures you... (to take).10. Put the verb in brackets into the Future Indefinite.

1. He (be) here soon. 2. The dress (be) ready tomorrow. 3. They (be) at the station in time for the 10.30 train. 4. I (know) the result in a day. 5. I (be) twenty years old next year.6. They (remember) you well. 7. When he (come) back? 8. When he comes, I (apologize) to him. 9. I (not see) this beautiful city again. 10. I (recognize) his pictures anywhere.

Exercise 11.Put the verb in brackets in to the Present Indefinite and the Future Indefinite.

I

a.1. When he (call) I (give) him a piece of my mind. 2. I (be) at home if you (need) anything. 3. They (be) in the gallery if you (decide) to speak to them. 4. If they (want) your advice, they (get) in touch with you. 5. If you (have) anything to report, put it in writing and send it to me.

b.1. I (write) you about it when I (have) time. 2. He (wait) until they (send) for him. 3. He (be) all right when this (be) over. 4. I'd like to ask you a few more questions before you (go).

c.1. I (not know) when they (come) to see us. 2. Ask him if he (stay) for dinner. 3. I (wonder) if we ever (see) each other again. 4. I (be) not sure if they (be) in time. 5. He can't tell us when the motor (start).

II

1. When the weather (get) warmer, I (start) practising again. 2. "Come in," she said. "I (see) if he (be) at home." 3. Come and see me when you (come) up to town and we (talk) everything over. 4. If my friends (come) in, please ask them to wait in the picture gallery. 5. He (want) to know if you (be) free tomorrow morning at 10.00. 6. I (wonder) when they (write) to us. 7. I (be) down at your office at 12 tomorrow. 8. When things (get) a little more settled, we (come) to see you. 9. They can't tell me when they (be) free. 10. Go straight on till you (come) to a fountain at the corner of the street; then turn left and you (find) this shop on your right. 11. When you (come) to the main road remember to stop and look both ways before you (cross). 12. Ask them when they (move) to a new flat. 13. "I want to get to the bottom of the valley." - "You must be careful when you (go) down because the slope of the hill (be) very slippery." 14. "I (be) glad when I (get) to the top!" 15. He doesn't say when he (come) back. 16. "Give this message to your teachers as soon as you (come) to school," said his mother. - "All right," said the boy running out. - "I (be) sure it (be) still in his pocket when he (get) home tonight," said his father. 17. If the patient (continue) to improve we (transfer) him to another ward. 18. "I (buy) some pot plants." - "When you (buy) them?" - "The florist (bring) them. Perhaps he (bring) them in the afternoon." 19. If you (look) at them, don't smile. 20. Before we (talk) about it, I'd like to show you something.12. All the sentences are future. Put the verbs into the correct form: will /won't or the Present Simple.: As soon as I see (see) him, I'll tell (tell) him everything.

1.If they(get) here on time, we can make it.

2.There is a surprise waiting for him when he(get) home.

3.Before you_ (leave), sir, I (give) you your present back.

4.If you(feel) better this afternoon, we(drive) to the coast.

5.Give him this message when you (see) him.

6.If we(come) in time, we(find) them there.

7.If I(be) lucky, I(get in) without a ticket.

8.(you/be) lonely without me, while I ______ (be) away?

Exercise 13. Make one sentence from two sentences.: They are off soon. You must visit them before that. You must visit them before they are off.

1.I'm going to finish my work. Then I'll go to the cinema.

when

2.He'll spend a week in Brussels. Then he'll go to England.

before

3.He'll come to London in April. He can stay with us.

when_____________________________

4.It's going to be dark soon. Let's leave before

_____________________ before __________________________________

Exercise 14. Put in when or if.: If it rains in the morning, we won't go swimming.

1.I'm going to England next week. _____I'm there, 1 hope to visit a few museums.

2.Frank might return this evening. ______ he does, can you cook him some meal?

3. I think he'll pass his exam. I'll be very surprised___________he doesn't pass it. 4. I hope to be on time. ButI don't make it, go without me. 5. I'm going shopping. you want anything, I can get it for you. 6.I don't feel well tonight. I think I'll go straight to bed

I get home. 7. I'm leaving for Canada tomorrow. I'll write to youI get there. 8.Iwant you to come to the party but ________ you don't want to come, you needn't.

Exercise 15. Translate into English.

. В следующем году мне будет 20 лет. 2. Возможно, он придет сегодня. 3. Когда вы начнете изучать иностранный язык? 4. Он думает, вам не понравится новый балет. 5. Она будет дома в 6 часов? - Нет. 6. Я надеюсь, вы хорошо напишете контрольную работу. 7. У вас завтра будет много работы? - Да. 8. Экзамены начнутся 1 июня. 9. Фильм будет очень интересным. 10. Мы увидимся с ним на следующей неделе.

Exercise 16. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. Before you (to cross) the park, you will come to a supermarket. 2. When you (to cross) the park, you will see the hospital. 3. If you (to translate) this article into Russian, I shall use it in my report. 4. If she (to be) in St Petersburg now, she will meet you at the railway station. 5. If you (not to hurry), you will miss the train. 6. If it (to rain), we shan't go to the country. 7. When my friend (to come) to St. Petersburg, we shall go to the Russian Museum. 8. What will you be doing when he (to come) to your place? 9. Don't forget to pay for your dinner before you (to leave) the canteen. 10. I shall be able to translate this article if you (to give) me a dictionary. 11. You will have to work hard at home if you (to miss) the lesson. 12. Where will you go when you (to come) to London? 13. The child won't be healthy if you (not to give) him much fruit. 14. I shan't have dinner before mother (to come) home. 15. What will you do if you (not to finish) your homework tonight? 16. She will wait for him till he (to come) back.17. All the sentences are future. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple or Future Simple.

. If I (to stay) some more days in your town, I (to call) on you and we (to have) a good talk. 2. He (to go) to the Public Library very often when he (to be) a student. 3. As soon as I (to return) from school, I (to ring) you up. 4. You (to pass) many towns and villages on your way before you (to arrive) in Moscow. 5. I (to stay) at home till she (to come). Then we (to go) to the theatre if she (to bring) tickets. 6. I (to go) to university when I (to leave) school.7. When he (to return) to St Petersburg, he (to call) on us. 8. If I (to see) him, I (to tell) him about their letter. 9. We (to gather) at our place when my brother (to come) back from Africa. 10. I (to sing) this song with you if you (to tell) me the words. 11. I hope you(to join) us when we (to gather) in our country house the next time. 12. What you (to do) when you (to come) home? 13. When they (to cross) the road, they (to see) the hotel. 14. Before she (to get) to the theatre, she (to go) past the shopping centre. 15. What we (to do) if it (to rain) tonight? 16. What she (to do) if she (to see) her best friend again? 17. If the bus (to be) very crowded, you (to be) exhausted by the time you (to get) to work. 18. If it (to be) very cold tonight, our car (not to start) in the morning.18. All the sentences are future. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple or Future Simple.

. If the weather (to be) nice, we probably (to go) to the beach. 2. If he still (to have) a cold and (not to feel) better, he (not to go) to a disco. 3. If you (to decide) to forget about your diet, you (to eat) wedding cake tomorrow. 4. If I (to drink) too much champagne at my friend's wedding, I (to get) a bad headache. 5. If they (to go) to California next year, they (to visit) his friend in San Francisco. 6. If she (not to work) properly, her boss (to fire) her and (to hire) my sister. 7. I (to see) you before you (to start)? 8. What he (to do) when he (to come) home? 9. Where they (to go) if the weather (to be) fine? 10. He (to ring) me up when he (to return) home. 11. If it (to rain), we (to stay) at home. 12. She (to walk) home if it (not to be) too cold. 13. I am sure he (to come) to say goodbye to us before he (to leave) St Petersburg. 14. Please turn off the light when you (to leave) the room. 15. If we (to be) tired, we (to stop) at a small village halfway to Moscow and (to have) a short rest and a meal there. 16. If you (to miss) the 10.30 train, there is another at 10.35. 17. She (to make) all the arrangements about it before she (to fly) there. 18. Before he (to start) for London, he (to spend) a week or two at a health resort not far from here.19. All the sentences are future. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple or Future Simple.

. My grandmother is superstitious. She always says to me, "If you (to spill) salt, you should throw a little salt over your left shoulder. If you (not to do) this, you (to have) bad luck. If you (to break) a mirror, you (to have) bad luck for seven years." 2. I (not to speak) to him until he (to apologize).3. Peter (to introduce) us to his friends as soon as we (to meet) them. 4. We (to go) to the station to meet Sergei when he (to come) to St Petersburg. 5. Don't go away until mother (to come) back. Give her the note as soon as she (to come). 6. You (to go) to the library with us? - No, I .... I (to stay) here and (to help) Jane with her grammar. I (to come) to the library after I (to finish). 7. Ring me up before you (to come). 8. I (to speak) to Mary if I (to see) her today. 9. If you (to ask) me a difficult question, I (to be) nervous. If I (to be) nervous, I (to make) a mistake. If I (to make) a mistake, the other students (to laugh) at me. If the other students (to laugh) at me, I (to be) embarrassed. And if I (to be) embarrassed, I (to cry). So please don't ask me a difficult question!19. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple, Present Continuous or Future Simple.

. It (to be) cold in autumn. It often (to rain). A cold wind often (to blow). 2. The weather (to be)fine today. It (to be) warm, the sun (to shine) brightly. A soft wind (to blow). Small white clouds (to sail) in the sky. 3. Don't go out: it (to rain) heavily. 4. Take your raincoat with you. I am afraid it (to rain) in the evening and you (to get) wet through if you (not to put) it on. 5. Every spring birds (to come) to our garden and (to sing) in the trees. 6. Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room. 7. It usually (not to snow) at this time of the year. 8. What the weather (to be) like now? It (to snow)? - No, it... . 9. We (to go) out of town to ski on Sunday? - Yes, we ... if it (to snow) this week and if there (to be) a lot of snow everywhere. 10. What you (to do) tomorrow? - We (to go) out of town if the Weather (not to change) for the worse. You (to come) with us? - With pleasure, if only I (not to have) too much work to do at home. 11.If we (to have) televisions at our supermarket, they (to inform) customers about things in the store.12.If we (to play) music, it (to produce) the right atmosphere. 13. If we (to put) in cameras, they (to stop) people stealing things. 14. If we (to employ) more assistants, they (to help) our customers.

Exercise 19. Translate into English.

. Он сделает упражнения по английскому языку, если у него не будет других дел. 2. Если я не помогу ему, он завтра не напишет контрольную работу. 3. Он не пойдет в библиотеку сегодня вечером. 4. Если он не пойдет в библиотеку, он будет дома. 5. Мы будем дома завтра. 6. Если мы будем дома завтра, мы посмотрим эту программу по телевизору. 7. Ее не будет завтра дома. 8. Если ее не будет завтра дома, оставь ей записку. 9. Завтpa погода будет хорошая. 10. Если завтра погода будет хорошая, мы поедем за город. 11. Когда она приходит в школу, она снимает пальто. 12. Когда она придет в школу, она снимет пальто. 13. Как только он вспоминает эту забавную сцену, он начинает смеяться. 14. Как только он вспомнит эту забавную сцену, он начнет смеяться. 15. Я приду домой в шесть часов. 16. Когда я приду домой, я позвоню вам. 17. Она позвонит нам вечером. 18. Если она позвонит вам, попросите ее принести мне книгу. 19. Я увижу Тома завтра. 20. Как только я увижу Тома, я расскажу ему об этом. 21. Я поеду в Париж на будущей неделе. 22. Перед тем, как я поеду в Париж, я позвоню вам.

Exercise 20.Complete the sentences. Use ...going to + one of these verbs:give lierain study walk wash

1.My hair is dirty I am going to wash it.

2.I don't want to go home by bus. I

3.John's university course begins in October. Heengineering.

4.Take an umbrella with you. It

5. I'm hungry. Ithis sandwich.

6. It's Val's birthday next week. Weher a present.

7. I feel tired. I down for an hour.

Exercise 21. Use will + Infinitive or to be going to:

. Can you help me? The letter is in French. - Certainly. I (to translate) it for you. 2.I like this story very much. I (to translate) it into Russian. 3. This iron doesn't work. I (to get) another one for you. 4. Our fridge is empty. I (to get) some food from our store tomorrow. 5.I (to join) your club with great pleasure. 6. You (to come) to my birthday party? 7. You (to take part) in the competition? 8. It (to rain) soon. 9. I'm sure she (to forget) about your remarks. 10. We (to spend) the weekend in Moscow.22. Translate into English using to be going + Infinitive:

1. Мы опаздываем. 2. Нам еще долго ждать? 3. Вот- вот пойдет дождь. 4. Конкурс будет трудным. 5. Я испеку свой любимый пирог. 6. Вечеринка будет очень интересной. 7. Он потратит все свои сбережения. 8. Я буду в своем новом платье. 9. Она не выйдет за него замуж. 10. Они у нас недолго пробудут. 11. Скоро они переедут на дачу. 12. Моямамаскоростанетбабушкой.

UNIT VII

Exercise 1.) Read the text, try to focus on its essential facts. Choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph:

)The Fields of Scientific Research 2) Different Groups of Sciences 3) The Importance of Science 4) What is Science? 5) Methods of Scientific Research) Make a précis of the text, using the following phrases:

.The title of the text is... 2. The text is about... The text deals with... 3. The text covers such points as... 4. It should be underlined that... 5. In conclusion, I may say that... 6. To my mind... In my opinion...AND SCIENTISTSword "science" comes from the Latin word "scientia", which means "knowledge". Science covers the broad field of knowledge that deals with facts and the relationship among these facts.study a wide variety of subjects. Some scientists search for clues to the origin of the universe and examine the structure of the cells of living plants and animals. Other researchers investigate why we act the way we do, or try to solve complicated mathematical problems.use systematic methods of study to make observations and collect facts. They develop theories that help them order and unify facts. Scientific theories consist of general principles or laws that attempt to explain how and why something happens or has happened. A theory is considered to become a part of scientific knowledge if it has been tested experimentally and proved to be true.study can be divided into three major groups: the natural, social, and technical sciences. As scientific knowledge has grown and become more complicated, many new fields of science have appeared. At the same time, the boundaries between scientific fields have become less and less clear. Numerous areas of science overlap each other and it is often hard to tell where one science ends and another begins. All sciences are closely interconnected.has great influence on our lives. It provides the basis of modern technology - the tools and machines that make our life and work easier. The discoveries and inventions of scientists also help shape our view about ourselves and our place in the universe.2. Read and give a summary of the text.AND TECHNOLOGYmeans the use of people's inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs. Since people have appeared on the earth, they have had to get food, clothes, and shelter. Through the ages, people have invented tools, machines, and materials to make work easier., when people speak of technology, they generally mean industrial technology. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago with the development of the steam engine, the growth of factories, and the mass production of goods. It influenced different aspects of people's lives. The development of the car influenced where people lived and worked. Radio and television changed their leisure time. The telephone revolutionized communication.has contributed much to modern technology. Science attempts to explain how and why things happen. Technology makes things happen. But not all technology is based on science. For example, people had made different objects from iron for centuries before they learnt the structure of the metal. But some modern technologies, such as nuclear power production and space travel, depend heavily on science.3. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) означает; 2) охватывает; 3) взаимосвязь; 4) широкое разнообразие; 5) ищут разгадки; 6) происхождение Вселенной; 7) структура клеток; 8) сложный; 9) собирать факты; 10) упорядочить и обобщить; 11) общие принципы; 12) пытаются объяснить; 13) как и почему; 14) что-то произошло; 15) соответствующий действительности; 16) основные группы; 17) общественные науки; 18) в то же самое время; 19) все менее и менее четкие; 20) многочисленный; 21) тесно взаимосвязаны; 22) оно обеспечивает; 23) открытия;24) изобретения; 25) формировать наши взгляды; 26) о себе; 27) удовлетворять собственные нужды; 28) они должны были; 29) кров; 30) на протяжении веков; 31) инструменты; 32) чтобы сделать; 33) в настоящее время; 34) тому назад; 35) паровой двигатель; 36) рост; 37) массовое производство товаров; 38) время досуга;39) произвел революцию; 40) сделала большой вклад; 41) например; 42) из железа; 43) в течение веков; 44) очень сильно; 45) зависит.

Exercise 3.) Find in the texts the words, which have the similar meanings as the following words:, to research, to attempt, to believe, to examine, main, complex, difficult, to start, big, a motor, various, to study;) Find in the texts the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following words:, easy, practice, to try, artificial, old, more, to begin, small, little.4. Fill in the gaps with the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you:. Science d... with a variety of subjects. 2. Scientists s... for the answers to the different questions. 3. The structure of the cells is e... by the scientists. 4. Different theories u... the facts. 5. The b... of some scientific fields are not clear. 6. The natural, social and technical sciences are closely i... 7. T... the ages, people have invented tools, machines, and materials to make work easier. 8. Science c... much to modern technology. 9. Some modern technologies d... on science.5. Find in the texts, translate, and analyse:) grammar form with the ending -ing:cells of living plants) grammar forms with the ending -ed:problemshave inventedhappened it influencedconsidered people lived and workedbeen tested television changedproved the telephone revolutionizedbe dividedhas contributedappearedis based on closely interconnected) grammar forms with the ending -s:from people's inventionsmeansthe structure of the cellscoversthe cells of living plantsdeals with factsother researchersthese facts systematic methodsto make observationswide variety of subjectsto collect factsfor cluestodevelop theoriesgroupstheir needsfields clothesboundariesthe agesareas 200 yearsscience ends factoriesscience beginsproduction of goodslives different aspectsprovides the basispeople's livestools and machinesscience attemptsthingsof scientistsdifferent objectsviews for centuriesmeans modern technologies6. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:

. The word "science" comes from the Latin word, which means ...

. Science deals with facts and ...

. Scientists study a wide variety of...

. Some scientists search for clues to ...

. Other researchers solve complicated ...

. Scientific theories consist of general principles or ...

. A theory becomes part of...

. Scientific study can be divided into three major groups:...

. The boundaries between scientific fields have become ...

. Science provides the basis of...

. Technology means the use of.. .

. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago with ...

. Technology influenced different aspects of...

. Science attempts to explain how and why ...

. Technology makes things ...7. Answer the following questions about science and technology:

. What is science?

. What is technology?

. Are they interconnected?

. Is all technology based on science?

. What modern technologies depend heavily on science?

. When did industrial technology begin?

. When was a steam engine invented?

. Who invented the steam engine?

. When was radio invented?

. Who invented the radio?

. When was television invented?

. Who invented the television?

. When was a telephone invented?

. Who invented the telephone?

. When was the first car invented?

. When was the first digital computer invented?

. Who invented the first digital computer?

. What famous scientists do you know?

. What famous inventors do you know?

. What scientific field are you interested in? Why?8. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:

. Scientists study a wide variety of subjects. 2. Scientific study can be divided into two major groups. 3. Many new fields of science have appeared. 4. Numerous areas of science overlap each other. 5. Science has great influence on our lives. английский язык перевод социолог

Grammar exercises1. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous.

1.Не (to read) a book now.

2.She (to do) her home work.

3.My mother (to sit) at the table now.

4.I still (to write) a letter.

5.They (to play) football.

6.It (to snow) now.

7.She (to explain) a grammar rule.

8.We (to have) dinner now.

9.Who (to speak) with you?

10.It still (to rain).

11.Why you (to talk)?

12.They (to eat) soup.

13.The girl (to draw) a picture.

14.My son (to swim) to the shore.

15.Her daughter (to play) chess at the moment.2. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.

. She is watching television at the moment.

2. They are playing football now.

3. My sister is writing a letter.

4. We are listening to the stereo.

5. They are talking to my friend.

6. Mary is sleeping.

7. You are listening to the radio.

8. He is having breakfast at the moment.

9. They are working now.

10. I am studying.

Exercise 3. Translate into English using the Present Continuous Tense.

1. Твои родители спят? - Нет, они смотрят телевизор.

. Что она делает? - Она спит.

3. Он обедает? - Нет, он разговаривает по телефону.

. Посмотри в окно! Идет дождь.

. Моя сестра примеряет новое платье.

. Он работает над своим докладом.

. Дедушка сидит в кресле и слушает новости.

. Послушай! Как хорошо она играет на рояле!

. Куда они идут? - Они идут в школу.

11. Что она учит? - Она учит стихотворение.

12. Во что играют дети? - Они играют в футбол.

. Почему ты не несешь его сумку?

. Моя семья сидит за столом.

. На каком языке они сейчас говорят? - На немецком.

16. Сейчас они едут в поезде.

17.Куда вы спешите? - Я спешу на работу.

18. Моя мама не готовит сейчас обед.

. Что ты делаешь? - Я режу овощи.

. С кем ты разговариваешь? - Со своим братом.

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

. Я все еще помню этого человека.

. Она сейчас никому не верит.

3. Вы сейчас слушаете радио? - Нет, я смотрю телевизор.

4. Ученики все еще пишут диктант.

5. Сейчас все зависит только от тебя.

6. Он очень напоминает своего отца.

7. Ты сейчас работаешь? - Да, работаю.

8. Мой старший сын обедает, а младший спит.

9. Мы все еще не согласны с тобой.

. Куда ты идешь? - Я иду на работу.

11. Они все еще разговаривают о фильме.

12. Эта книга состоит из трех частей.

13. Твоя сестра все еще разговаривает по телефону? - Нет, не разговаривает.

14. Сейчас он владеет чудесным домом на побережье.

15. Что он слушает? - Он все еще слушает радио.

Exercise 5.Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Present Continuous.

1.She (to read) at the moment.

2.You (to go) to work by car?

3.He (to drink) coffee in the morning.

4.They (to have) breakfast now.

5.I (not to watch) television every night,

6.Look! She (to dance).

7.He (to have) breakfast every morning.

8.You (to listen) to the radio now?

9.We (to look) for our things now.

10.He (not to watch) television at the moment.

11.I (not to get up) at seven o'clock every morning.

12.Don't (to make) so much noise: mother (to sleep).

13.She (not to drink) coffee in the morning.

14.Peter (to talk) to Susan at the moment.

15.Where (to be) your mother? - She (to cook) dinner now.

16.Listen! They (to discuss) an interesting problem.

17.She (to listen) to the radio in her room now?

18.He (not to ride) a bicycle every evening.

19.Jane (to work) in Paris at the moment?

20.They (to be) in the garden now?

Exercise 6. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Present Continuous.

1.Her baby always (to sleep) after breakfast.

2.He can't talk to you now. He (to go) out.

3.The programme (to start) at nine o'clock every night.

4.I am sorry, but my friend (to wait) for me.

5.They (to go) to the beach now.

6.She never (to want) to go to the cinema.

7.Look at my daughter! She (to read).

8.Your grandmother (to sit) in the garden now?

9.She (to cook) dinner now?

10.They (to go) to the cinema very often.

11.It's nine o'clock. Jane still (to play) chess with her father.

12.Mary (to drive) to her office every day?

13.He (to be) in the library now?

14.I (not to study) at the moment.

15.Nick and Jane (to be) in their room. They (to speak).

16.He (to leave) the office every day at five.

17.What magazine you (to read) now?

18.Wait a minute! I (to put) my coat on.

19.Listen to Helen! She (to sing) a new song.

20.Where (to be) your husband? - He (to fish) now?

Exercise 7. Continue in the negative.: Mother is talking on the phone, (sleep)She isn't sleeping.

1. John is standing. (lie down) __________________________________ 2. Father is shaving. (wash) ____________________________________ 3. The boys are playing. (fight) _________________________________4. We are dancing. (jump)______________________________________ 5. They are speaking. (shout) ___________________________________ 6. Mary is running. (walk) _____________________________________ 7. I am eating. (drink) _________________________________________ 8. The teacher is speaking. (read)________________________________

Exercise 8. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.: Are you drawing? (write a story)

-No. I'm not. I'm writing a story.

1.Is he writing a letter? (watch television)_______________________

2.Are you reading Byron's poems? (learn them by heart)

3.Is Dad smoking in his study? (read a newspaper)

4.Are they listening to the radio? (talk with a friend)

5.Are you hurrying to work? (go home)

6.Is Joan playing the piano? (listen to a concert)

7.Are you working at your essay? (write a film script)

8.Is she washing up? (cook)

Exercise 9. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.: Is Mother very busy just now? (type a report)

-Yes, she is. She is typing a report.

1.Is Jerry very busy just now? (study)

2.Are the students very busy just now? (read)

3.Is Susan very busy just now? (have breakfast)

4.Are the Greens very busy just now? (shop)

5.Is Miss Black very busy just now? (sew)

6.Is Jane very busy just now? (wash up)__________________________

7.Is Henry very busy just now? (skate)

8.Are the girls very busy just now? (rehearse)______________________

Exercise 10. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.: What are you doing? (daydream)

-I'm daydreaming.

1.Why is Father making such a terrible noise? (teach the dog to bark)___

2.What are you doing with the scissors? (cut out a dress)

3.Where are you hurrying to? (run to catch my bus)

4.What are you doing in this shop? (buy a minkcoat)________________

5.Why are you leaving so soon? (go to the University)

6.Why is she playing the violin so late? (rehearse for a concert)

7.Why are the children listening so attentively? (listen to a favourite fairy tale)_________________________________________________________

8. What is George doing in the kitchen? (bake an apple pie)_____________11. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.: Are you busy tonight? (Yes/meet a friend)

Yes. I am. I'm meeting a friend.

1.Is Ivy busy this afternoon? (Yes/go to the library)_________________

2.Are they busy this evening? (No/have a rest) __________________

3.Is Mary busy after tea? (No/have a nap)_____________________

4.Are you busy today? (Yes/have visitors)______________________

5.Is Kate busy after lunch? (No/stay at home) ____________________

6.Are the Browns busy today? (No/have a holiday)_________________

7.Is Fred busy tonight? (Yes/go to the concert)___________________

8.Are you busy this afternoon? (Yes/do up the flat)________________12. Put the verb into the correct form.: Please be silent for a while. I am listening (listen) to the news.'t speak so loud. The child isn't sleeping (not/sleep) yet. Listen to those girls. What language are they speaking (they/speak)?

1.Please be quiet. I (try) to sleep.

2.Look! It ________________________________________(rain).

3.Why__________(you/look) at me like that? Am I green or something?

4.You ___________ (make) a lot of noise. Can you be a bit quieter?

5.Excuse me, I ______________ (look) for a phone box. Where can I find one?

6.(in the theatre) It's a good play, isn't it?___________(you/enjoy) it?

7.Listen! Can you hear these children next door? They(cry) again.

8.Why ______________ (you/wear) your fur coat today? it's very warm.

9.I ________________ (not/go) to school this week. I'm on holiday.

10.I want to lose weight. I (not/eat) sweets now.

Exercise 13. Complete these sentences using some of these verbs: get, become, change, improve, fall, increase, rise.: The water level is rising very fast.

1.The prices for food __________________________at the moment.

2.He is still weak but he ________________________ stronger slowly.

3.These days life ______________________ more and more expensive.

4.The weather _______________ every moment: now cold, now hot.

5.The cost of living __________. Every year things are more expensive.

6.Victor has gone to work in America. When he arrived, his English wasn't very good but now it _____________________________________.

7.The environment is already very bad and it___________worse.

Exercise 14. Translate into English.

. На кого вы сейчас смотрите? - Я смотрю на эту старую даму. 2. С кем разговаривает Ваш друг? - Он разговаривает с нашим преподавателем. 3. О чем вы рассказываете своим друзьям? - Я рассказываю им о своем отпуске. 4. Вы сейчас пишете диктант? - Нет, мы делаем упражнение 9. 5. Куда вы идете вечером? - Мы идем в цирк. 6. Когда они приезжают в Москву? - Они приезжают утром. 7. Мы уезжаем в Минск. 8. Эти студенты делают упражнение или переписывают текст? 9. Кого встречают эти студенты? - Они встречают иностранных студентов. 10. Куда вы идете? -Я иду на фотовыставку.15. Translate into English using the Future Continuous Tense.

1. I (to watch) television all evening.

. She (to work) at home the whole day tomorrow.

. They (to stay) at a new hotel.

4. He (to live) in Kyiv for the next few weeks.

. Beth (to write) a letter at that time.

6. You to do) your home task all these days?

7. Dan (to enjoy) the sunshine on the beach?

8. Peter (to read) the whole night?

. We (to have) coffee?

10. Tom (to have) a bath at this time?

. Where you (to wait) for me?

12. What Susan (to do) at nine o'clock tomorrow?

. Where he (to pass) his exam?

. When she (to type) letters?

. We (not to speak) at ten o'clock.

Exercise 16. Translate into English using the Future Continuous Tense and the Future Simple Tense.

1.You (to work) all tomorrow morning?

2.He (to see) them tomorrow. He (to tell) them what you said.

3.I (to visit) her office next day. I (to ask) her then.

4.My son (to stay) with my parents for the holidays.

5.You (to stay) here all weekend?

6.Don't disturb him, at the moment he (to have) breakfast.

7.I (to see) the manager at the meeting next week. And he (to give) me all the information he knows.

8.Next year he (to come) to Paris.

9.You (to come) to our party? - No, I (to work) on my report.

10.Don't leave your child alone! He (to cry).

11.She (to give) me this book? - No, she (to be) busy at that time.

12.Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (to rain) the whole day.

13.What you (to do) at six o'clock tomorrow? -I(to play) the piano.

14.He (to leave) the hospital, as feels better.

15.We (to be busy) this evening. We (to pack) our things.

Exercise 17. Put the verb in brackets into the Future Continuous.

1.Don't ring her up at 12 o'clock. She (have) her music lesson.

2.At this time tomorrow the boys of our group (play) football.

3.When we arrive in St. Petersburg, it probably (rain).

4.It is late autumn, soon the leaves (fall).

5.Let's wait here; the Palace Bridge (open) in a minute to let that ship through.

Exercise 18. Answer the questions in the Future Continuous Tense, using the given suggestions.: What will he be doing tomorrow afternoon ? (drive to the seaside) He will be driving to the seaside.

1.What will she be doing on Sunday? (make a dress)

2.What will you be doing at this time next week? (bathe in the Black Sea)

3.What will grandfather be doing when we arrive? (work in the garden)

4.What will he be doing at the University for five years? (studylaw)

5.What will they be doing at this time tomorrow? (fly to Kiev)

6.What will she be doing at the concert tonight? (sing Russian folk-songs)

7.What will he be doing at this time the day after tomorrow? (interview a foreign delegation)

8.What will she be doing next term? (lecture at the Institute of Foreign Languages)

Exercise 19. Extend the statements in the Future Continuous Tense, using the words in brackets.: Don't call for me at six. (have a bath)'t call for me at six. I shall be having a bath.

1.Don't ring them up at seven in the morning. (sleep)

2.Don't send us any letters in June. (travel)

3.Don't call on us tonight. (pack)

4.Don't come to see her after lunch. (type)

5.Don't leave the child alone. (cry)

6.Don't tell Granny about it. (grumble)

7.Don't expect him to come next Saturday. (work)

8.Don't wait for Maggie tomorrow. (keep to her room)

Exercise 20.Put the verb in brackets into the Past Continuous.

1.I (to read) a book at two o'clock.

2.They (to write) the test at this time yesterday.

3.He (to work) in the garden from two till five o'clock.

4.We (to watch) television the whole evening.

5.You (to play) football at six o'clock?

6.You (to drink) tea at seven o'clock?

7.He (to draw) from three till four o'clock?

8.Who (to listen) to the radio at this time?

9.It (to rain) the whole day yesterday?

10.They (to skate) at three o'clock?

11.You (not to sleep) at nine o'clock last night.

12.I (not to write) a letter to my granny at eight o'clock.

13. She (not to help) mother about the house from two till six.

14. George (to do) his lessons the whole evening?

. He (to speak) in a low voice.

Exercise 21. Put the verb in brackets into Present Continuous or Past Continuous

1.Не (to write) a letter now.

2.He (to write) a letter at two o'clock yesterday.

3.She (to do) her lessons now.

4.She (to do) her lessons at this time yesterday.

5.My friend (not to sleep) now. He (to watch) television.

6.My friend (not to sleep) at eight o'clock yesterday. He (to watch) television.

7.She (to listen) to the music at the moment?

8.She (to listen) to the music at this time yesterday?

9.They (to play) chess when I saw them yesterday.

10.They (to play) chess now.

11.Listen! My son (to sing).

12.Не (to sing) when I (to enter) his room yesterday.

13.Why-they (to work) in the garden? - They (to plant) flowers now.

14.Beth (to wear) a new dress now.

15.She (to play) the piano when I came in.22. Put the verb in brackets into Present Continuous or Past Continuous.

1.Не (to write) a letter now.

2.He (to write) a letter at two o'clock yesterday.

3.She (to do) her lessons now.

4.She (to do) her lessons at this time yesterday.

5.My friend (not to sleep) now. He (to watch) television.

6.My friend (not to sleep) at eight o'clock yesterday. He (to watch) television.

7.She (to listen) to the music at the moment?

8.She (to listen) to the music at this time yesterday?

9.They (to play) chess when I saw them yesterday.

10.They (to play) chess now.

11.Listen! My son (to sing).

12.Не (to sing) when I (to enter) his room yesterday.

13.Why-they (to work) in the garden? - They (to plant) flowers now.

14.Beth (to wear) a new dress now.

15.She (to play) the piano when I came in.

Exercise 23. Put the verb in brackets into Present Continuous or Past Continuous.

1.What you (to do) from seven till nine yesterday?

2.What she (to drink) now? - She (to drink) juice.

3.Nick (to draw) a picture when I saw him.

4.Who (to stand) near the door now?

5.When I looked through the window, the sun (to shine) but the wind (to blow).

6.What they (to discuss) at the moment?

7.It (to snow) when I left my house yesterday.

8.Robert (to have) dinner now? - No, he (to read) a book.

9.Our children (to make) noise the whole evening yesterday.

10.What they (to speak) about when I (to enter) the room?

11.He (to look) for his keys at the moment.

12.Look! Somebody (to swim) across the river.

13.He (to go) to the office when I met him in the street.

14.She (to read) a book while I was watching television.

15.My friend (to wait) for a bus when I saw him at the bus stop.24. Put the verb in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

1.She (to cook) yesterday.

2.She (to cook) at three o'clock yesterday.

3.She (to cook) from two till four yesterday.

4.I (to read) a lot last month.

5.I (not to read) at five o'clock.

6.I (not to read) when you came in.

7.Susan (to pass) her exam two days ago.

8.Susan (to pass) her exam at this time yesterday.

9.What he (to do) when I came?

10.What he (to do) the whole day yesterday?

11.Pete (to work) in the garden yesterday.

12.Pete (to work) in the garden at five o'clock yesterday.

13.Where Pete (to work) when I came to see him?

14.My sister (to wash) the dishes after dinner yesterday.

15.My sister (to wash) the dishes at eight o'clock yesterday.

16.What your sister (to wash) when I entered the kitchen?

17.Why your child (not to sleep) at ten o'clock yesterday?

18.They (to play) tennis two days ago.

19.They (to play) tennis from two till three yesterday.

20.They (not to discuss) this question last evening.

Exercise 25. Put the verb in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

1.The pupils (to discuss) this problem yesterday.

2.The pupils (to discuss) this problem the whole evening yesterday.

3.They (discuss) this problem from three till five o'clock.

4.They (discuss) this problem at four o'clock yesterday.

5.They (discuss) this problem when I came in.

6.She (to learn) a poem yesterday.

7.She (to learn) a poem at five o'clock yesterday.

8.She (to learn) a poem from five till six o'clock yesterday.

9.She (to learn) a poem when mother opened the door.

10.She (to learn) a poem the whole day yesterday.

11.I (not to see) him yesterday. I (to see) him two days ago.

12.She (not to write) a letter at seven o'clock yesterday. She (to write) it two days ago.

13.Jane (to read) the magazine from five till six o'clock last evening.

14.He (to study) a rule in the morning last Monday.

15.Last month our team (to lose) the game.

16.What she (to do) when the telephone rang?

17.Whom they (to speak) to when I met them at the station?

18.They (to have) lunch when the telephone rang.

19.Nick (to make) a report at three o'clock yesterday.

20.Mike (to write) on the blackboard when I came into the classroom.

21.She (not to sleep) the whole night yesterday.

22.Who entered the room when you (to watch) television?

23.What you (to think) about when I asked you a question?

Exercise 26. Put the verb in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

1.When my father (to come) home, I (to have) dinner.

2.When Alice (to return), I (to listen) to the radio.

3.When mother (to enter) his room, he (to draw) a picture.

4.When my sister (to come) in, I (to do) my lessons.

5.When her aunt (to air) the room, she (to catch) cold.

6.The telephone (to ring) when I (to leave) the house.

7.When I (to meet) her, she (to go) to the office.

8.He (to wash) his face when somebody (to knock) at the door.

9.The young people (to dance) when I (to come) to the party.

10.When he (to wash) the dishes, he (to break) a plate.

11.When I (to ring) him, he (to learn) a rule.

12.When she (to play) in the yard, she (to see) her mother.

13.Her son (to fall) when he (to climb) up the tree.

14.When they (to see) their children, they (to play).

15.When I (to enter) the bar, I (to see) that they (to drink) coffee.

16.When he (to do) his homework, he (to make) a lot of mistakes.

17.When the teacher (to come) into the classroom, all the pupils (to sit) at their desks.

18.When I (to watch) television, the phone rang.

19.When she (to drive) her car, she (to feel) a headache.

20.We (to make) the beds when Jane (to open) the door.

Exercise 27. Put the verb in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

1.We (to leave) the party when he (to arrive).

2.What they (to do) when you (to see) them?

3.When he (to come) to see me, I (to have) a bath.

4.I (to read) a book when I (to hear) the noise.

5.They (to have) supper when he (to visit) them.

6.We (to sit) here yesterday when he (to pass).

7.She (to cross) the road when she (to see) the accident.

8.I (to choose) the present when my friend (to enter) the shop.

9.When my aunt (to go) home, she (to lose) her purse.

10.His brother (to sleep) when he (to leave).

11.They (to wait) for me at five o'clock yesterday.

12.What he (to do), when you (to arrive)?

13.It (to snow) when I (to go) out.

14.Who (to come) in when you (to translate) an article?

15.When they (to play) in my room, they (to find) my notebook.28. Translate into English using Past Indefinite or Present Continuous

1.Что ты делал, когда пришли твои родители? Я делал уроки.

2.Когда он смотрел телевизор, зазвонил телефон.

3.Он спал, когда к нему пришли друзья.

4.Ты нашел грибы, когда гулял в лесу?

5.Когда она шла на работу, она встретила свою подругу.

6.Кто помогал тебе убирать в комнате?

7.Он рассказал тебе эту историю? - Да, он рассказал ее мне в три часа.

8.Когда мы вышли из дома, шел сильный дождь.

9.Я думал над очень трудным вопросом, когда вдруг зазвонил телефон.

10.Когда я встретил ее, она спешила на работу.

11.Что он делал вчера в семь? - Он работал над докладом.

12.Мы видели белку, когда гуляли в лесу.

13.Она была больна и лежала в кровати, когда мы пришли навестить ее.

14.Он управлял автомобилем, когда почувствовал боль в сердце.

15.Дети переходили дорогу в неположенном месте, когда милиционер остановил их.

16.Я чистил зубы, когда зазвонил телефон.

17.Вчера в шесть часов я делал уроки, а' мама читала газеты.

18.Когда он пришел домой, его семья обедала.

20.Вчера в семь мы обсуждали этот вопрос.

Exercise 29. Put the verb in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

1.Не (not to open) the window before classes yesterday.

.You (to do) your homework at ten o'clock yesterday?

3.I (to hurry) to the library when I (to meet) him.

4.She (to translate) a lot of articles at the office last week.

5.We (to smoke) in the room when he (to see) us.

6.Her sister (to stay) at her friend's over the last week- end.

.We (to pack) our things when our taxi (to come).

8.The day before yesterday he (to finish) his work at seven o'clock.

9.They (to have) their English lesson at nine o'clock yesterday.

10.It (to be) morning when I (to have) breakfast at six o'clock.

11.What he (to do) ten years ago? - He (to study) at school.

12.Yesterday I (to ask) my friend not to ring me.

13.Last week I (to be) cross with my friend.

14.You (to play) volley-ball last Sunday? - No, we (to play) football.

15.My father (to write) a very interesting article last month.

16.She (to come) home at eleven o'clock that's why she (not to call) you.

17.What the weather (to be) like yesterday? - It (to be) fine.

18.We (to talk) loudly but he (not to wake) up.

19.When you last (to be) in this city? - I (to be) here five years ago.

20.I (to be) angry when he (to ring) me so late yesterday.30. Put the verb in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

1.Why you (to be) angry with me yesterday? - I (not to be).

2.Where you (to be) last night? - We (to be) at the theatre.,

3.When I (to come) to the bus stop, I (to see) a boy who (to play) with a dog.

4.It (to be) eleven o'clock, when I (to decide) to go to bed.

5.What time they (to have) supper yesterday? - They (to have) supper from seven till eight.

6.When she (to see) him a year ago she (not to recognize) him.

7.You (to prepare) for your lessons last night?

8.He (to like) the last show he (to see).

9. I (to be) very busy yesterday. I (to prepare) for my exam the whole day.

10.My brother (to wash) the dishes while I (to sweep) the floor.

11.When Beth (to hurry) to the institute, she (to see) her friend.

12.Why you (not to see) a doctor yesterday?

13.Why he (not to pass) his exam yesterday? - He (to feel) ill.

14.I (to give) him a good advice when he (to meet) me in' the street.

15.You (to make) your report yesterday? - No, I (to be) ill. I (to have) a temperature.

16.It (to rain) heavily when he (to go) out.

17.My mother (to cook) dinner while we (to watch) TV yesterday.

18.You (to go) to see your friend, When she (to be) ill?

19.I (to close) the window because it (to start) raining.

20.My brother (to open) the door and (to take) a book yesterday.

Exercise 31. Put the verb in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

. It (to be) a rainy afternoon. Nick (to sit) at the table and (to write) to his friend. He (to write) about his last summer holidays. His mother (to cook) dinner when he (to write) the letter. As soon as his dinner (to be) ready, mother (to invite) him to have dinner. Nick (to stop) writing and (to go) to the kitchen.

. Lost summer we (to spend) in the country. We (to live) ill a small house. Every day we (to go) to the river. Suddenly a big grey cloud (to cover) the sun and it (to begin) raining heavily. We (to run) home. It (to rain) the whole evening and night.

. Yesterday I (to ring) up to my friend but nobody (to answer). I (to ring) him from 2 till 7 o'clock. At last he (to answer) at eight o'clock in the evening. He (to tell) me that he (to pass) his exam at 3 o'clock.

. It (to be) early morning when she (to get) up. She (to open) the window and (to see) that the weather (to be) fine. The sun (to shine) brightly, the birds (to sing) in the trees, the warm wind (to blow). She (not to close) the window and (to decide) to invite her friend for a walk.32. Put the verb in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

1.When we (to meet) him, he (to go) to the shop. He (to want) to buy some food.

2.What you (to look) for when I (to open) the door?

3.Your daughter (to skate) on the pond from five till six?

4.What they (to laugh) at when he (to come) in? - They (to laugh) at a funny story.

5.Where he (to go) when rain (to begin)? - He (to go) to the office.

6.What she (to play) when I (to ring) her up? - She (to play) the violin.

7.Who (to quarrel) at that time? His friend (to quarrel).

8.Beth and Tom (to watch) a TV programme when the mother (to ask) them to help her.

9.You (to help) your mother while she (to wash) up?

10.The scientist (to work) in the laboratory when somebody (to switch) off the light.

11.Whom you (to talk) on the phone to, when I came into the room?

12.Jane (to have) a walk in the park when it (to begin) t snow.

13.Why you (not to have) classes at nine o'clock? - Our teacher (to be) ill.

14.Yesterday the whole lesson we (to revise) grammar.

15.While Helen (to take) a shower mother (to wash) the dishes.

16.I (to lay) the table when I (to break) a plate.

17.When I (to meet) them in the yard, they (to laugh).

18.She (not to get) up at six o'clock yesterday. She (to get up at eight.

19.They just (to leave) the house when we (to arrive).

20.When he (to come) to the station, his friend already (to wait) for him.33. Answer the questions using when and the verb of the subordinate clause in the Past Continuous Tense.: When did she meet Helen? (walk along the street)met Helen when she was walking along the street.

1.When did you catch that cold? (skate on a frosty day)

2.When did he write those nice poems? (have a holiday)

3.When did she learn the language? (live in England)

4.When did she hear that song? (listen to a concert on the radio)

5.When did you buy that book? (read up for my exams)

6.When did the boy hurt himself? (ride the bicycle) '

7.When did Philip lose his camera? (walk about the city)

8.When did he ring you up? (have supper)

Exercise 34. Put the verbs into the correct form, the Past Simple or the Past Continuous.: While Sean was finishing (finish) the letter, his friend came (come).

1.Dan _________ (fall) off the tree while he _________ (rescue) the cat.

2.Last night I __________ (read) in the bed when suddenly I ________(hear) a voice

downstairs.

3.______________________(you/have) a bath when I phoned you?

4.They _______________ (wait) for a taxi when I __________ (arrive).

5.I __________ (not/drive) very fast when I ______________ (see) her.

6.I ________________ (break) a plate last night. I ____________ (do) the washing-up when it _________________________(slip) out of my hand.

7.Bob ____________(take) a nap while I _________ (paint) the ceiling.

8.We ____________(not/go) out because it _____________ (get) dark.

9.What ___________________ (you/do) at this time yesterday?

10.We _________ (see) Amanda in the gallery. She ___________ (wear) her new necklace.VIII1.) Read the text and try to focus on its essential facts. Choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph:

) Islam 2) Different Religious Denominations 3) Buddhism 4) Christianity 5) Hinduism 6) Judaism

b) Make a précis of the text, using the following phrases:

. The title of the text is... 2. The text is about... The text deals with... 3. The text covers such points as... 4. It should be underlined that... 5. In conclusion, I may say that... 6. To my mind... In my opinion...ALL OVER THE WORLDhistory of mankind has shown the influence of religion on man. The study of religion has become increasingly important in modern times. There are a lot of religious denominations all over the world. Religions are divided into several major branches, which are subdivided into numerous smaller schools and sects.is a worldwide religion; about 1.2 billion people are Christians. Most of us are Christians too. Christians believe in one God with three aspects: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit. The main Christian denominations are the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant Churches. The Protestant Church includes Anglicans, Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and others.is based on the teaching of Koran. In Islam five obligations should be observed: to believe in Allah (God) and Muhammad (the prophet); to pray five times a day; to give money to charity; to fast between sunrise and sunset during Ramadan; and to visit Mecca, the holiest city of Islam in Saudi Arabia, at least once. Muslims pray in mosques, most mosques have one or more minarets, from which the Muslims are called to pray.is the religion of the ancient Hebrews and their descendants, the Jews. The sacred writing of Judaism is the Hebrew Bible, which includes the Torah, historical and prophetic books. Jews pray in synagogues. There are three main synagogue associations: the Orthodox, the Conservative, and the Reform.try to follow the life of Buddha. The Buddha is the title given to Gautama Siddhartha, a wealthy man from India who gave up all his possessions and family to teach the ideas on which the religion of Buddhism is based. Buddhism is a religion of eastern, southern and central Asia, the main idea of which that one must become free of human desires in order to escape from suffering. The followers of this religion believe in reincarnation, which means that people are born again after they die. And their next life depends on how well they behaved in their previous life. All Buddhists are meditating to reach nirvana.also believe in reincarnation. Hinduism is the main religion of India, which has no founder and no sacred writing. According to Hinduism there are three main gods: Brahma, Siva, Vishnu, and many other god-like beings. There are about 400 million followers of this religion all over the world.2. Read and give a summary of the text.IN THE UKnational church of England is Anglican Church, which is a branch of the Christian religion. It was King Henry VIII who broke away from the Church of Rome and declared himself Head of the Church of England, Anglican Church., the Queen is the Head of Anglican Church. She appoints two archbishops and all the bishops. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the priest who is the leader of the Church of England. Canterbury is a small city in southeastern England, which is famous for its impressive 11th century Cathedral, the main church of the Church of England. The Archbishop of Yoke, an important priest, who has the next highest rank to Archbishop of Canterbury. There are twenty-four senior bishops in the House of Lords, then come the eighteen remaining bishops. Each bishop is responsible for a district called a diocese. Each diocese is divided into parishes with a vicar at the head. Many vicars combine the tasks of a priest, social worker, and psychologist.are other religious denominations on the territory of the UK. The Presbyterian Church, a Protestant Christian Church, is the national church of Scotland, most of Protestants in Northern Ireland are Presbyterians too. John Knox, a Scottish Protestant, established the Presbyterian Church in Scotland in the 16th century. Presbyterians are typically thought to be rather strict and serious people.3. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) история человечества; 2) влияние религии; 3) изучение религии; 4) религиозные вероисповедания; 5) по всему миру; 6) делятся; 7) подразделяются; 8) большинство из нас; 9) христиане; 10) православный; 11) римский; 12) католический; 13) протестантский; 14) Англиканская церковь; 15) Пресвитерианская церковь; 16) основан; 17) пять обязательств;18) пять раз в день; 19) на благотворительность; 20) поститься между восходом и закатом; 21) самый святой город; 22) по крайней мере; 23) в мечетях; 24) один или больше; 25) древние иудеи; 26) их потомки; 27) священное писание; 28) стараются следовать; 29)оставил свою семью; 30) человеческие желания; 31) чтобы избежать страдания; 32) верят в перевоплощение; 33) предыдущая жизнь; 34) национальная церковь; 35) разорвал отношения с; 36) объявил себя; 37) в наши дни; 38) производящий глубокое впечатление;39)следующее самое высокое звание по отношению к; 40) ответственный за; 41) во главе; 42) совмещать задачи; 43) социальный работник; 44) строгие и серьезные люди; 45) чтобы достигнуть нирваны; 46) в соответствии с; 47) богоподобные существа.

Exercise 4.) Find in the text the words, which have the similar meanings as the following words:, many, some, main, to found, old, rich, to leave, wish, well-known, usually;) Find in the text the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following words:, ancient, big, night, forefathers, poor, to live, international, big, low, junior.5. Fill in the blanks with the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you:

. There are a lot of religious d... all over the world. 2. Muslims must observe five o... . 3. Muslims must p... five times a day. 4. They must regularly give money to c... . 5. From the m... the Muslims are usually called to pray. 6. The Jews are the d... of the ancient Hebrews. 7. Buddhists and Hindus believe in r... . 8. They want to e... from the suffering. 9. There are some s... bishops in the House of Lords. 10. The bishop is responsible of the d... .6. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:

. Religious denominations are divided into...

. Christianity is...

. Christians believe in...

. Islam is based on...

. Muslims must...

. Judaism is...

. Jews pray in...

. Buddhism is...

. Buddhists try to follow...

. The followers of Buddhism and Hinduism believe in...

. The national church of England is...

. The Queen is...

. She appoints...

. The Archbishop of Canterbury is...

. The national church of Scotland is...7. Answer the questions about religion:

. How many religious denominations are there all over the world?

. How many Christians are there all over the world?

. Christians believe in one God with three aspects, don't they?

. What are the main Christian denominations?

. What branches does the Protestant Church consist of?

. What is Islam based on?

. What are the five obligations in Islam?

. How are the followers of Islam called?

. What must Muslims do?

. Where do Muslims pray?

. What are the minarets for?

. What is the religion of Jews?

. Where do Jews pray?

. What are the main synagogue associations?

. Whose life do Buddhists try to follow?

. What is the main idea of Buddhism?

. The followers of Buddhism believe in reincarnation, don't they?

. What does reincarnation mean?

. What are Buddhists meditating for?

. What is the main religion in India?

. How is the national church of England called?

. Who was the first Head of the Church of England?

. Who is the Head of the Church of England now?

. Who is the leader of the Church of England?

. What is Canterbury famous for?

. Who is at the head of each diocese?

. What is a diocese divided into?

. How is the national church of Scotland called?

. Who established the Presbyterian Church in Scotland?

. Most of Protestants in Northern Ireland are Presbyterians, aren't they?8. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:

. There aren't many religious denominations all over the world. 2. Muslims do not pray much. 3. Muslims pray in synagogues. 4. A lot of people all over the world are Christians. 5. Judaism is the religion of the Jews. 6. Gautama Siddhartha was a poor man. 7. Buddhists and Hindus believe in reincarnation. 8. The national church of England is Christian Church. 9. The Queen appoints all the bishops. 10. A vicar is responsible of his diocese.exercises1. Answer the questions.

  1. Have you washed the cups? Yes, _
  2. Has Steve passed the exam? No,
  3. Have you heard the news? No,
  4. Have they gone out? Yes, _
  5. Has Rose made coffee? Yes, _
  6. Have you spoken to her? Yes, _
  7. Have they lived here long? No,
  8. Has the post come? No,
  9. Has she bought a new hat? Yes, _
  10. Have they had lunch? Yes, __ . _

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect.

1. Frank (buy) two English books.

. They (go) out together.

. She (be) to Oxford before.

. Daisy (change) very much.

. The boys (eat) all the cakes.

. I (not meet) Sharon for a long time.

. The secretary (type) the letter.

. She (not see) Frank since last winter.

. Bruce (post) the letter.

. I (live) in this flat for a few weeks already.

. We (be) to several good concerts lately.

. Mary (buy) some new dresses.

. She (not come) yet.

. They (have) their supper already.

. You (not change) at all.

Exercise 3. Ask as in the example.

He has already read this book. -> ->Has he read this book yet?

. He has already seen this film.

. You have already bought a present for Rose.

. Nora has already gone to bed.

. Joy has already finished her work.

. Ronald has already found a new job.

. Frank has already sold his car.

. You have already written to Ben.

. Steve has already paid his debts.

. He has already come.

. You have already had lunch.

Exercise 4. Change as in the example.

He is still washing the cups. - He hasnt washed the cups yet.

1. He is still making the bed.

. He is still sweeping the floor.

. He is still feeding the baby.

. She is still reading the paper.

. She is still drinking her tea.

. We are still having our breakfast.

. Bill is still watering the tomatoes.

. Sally is still painting the walls.

. The teacher is still cleaning the blackboard.

. I am still finishing my composition.

Exercise 5. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or the Present Perfect.

1. I (know) her for years.

. Yesterday Bob (play) football in the park.

. He (like) to play football since he was a child.

. Mr Taylor (drive) me to the airport last night.

. Peter (fall) from the tree yesterday.

. John (paint) this portrait two years ago.

. Sarah (come) to see us last Monday.

. I like this book very much. I (read) it twice.

. We (go) to a concert last night.

. I (not meet) him since he left England.

. Yesterday I (go) to bed at midnight.

. His family (live) in this small village for ten years.

. Shakespeare (write) a lot of plays.

. Bob (not finish) his letter yet.

Exercise 6. Comment on the use of the Present Perfect.

  1. He has passed the interview and he's happy.
  2. Have you ever tasted Mrican food?
  3. We have known each other since 1990.
  4. I've been here for an hour already.
  5. The manager hasn't come yet.
  6. They have known it all the time.
  7. Thank you for everything that you've done for me.
  8. I've studied the last few telexes from Paris and I've come to a decision.
  9. Have I told you lately that I love you?
  10. Have you forgotten? I've just told you about it.
  11. He has no wife as he has never met the right person, but he hasn't given up hope ...
  12. Since I've known you, you've always been a workaholic.
  13. I hope we haven't made a mistake.
  14. The weather has been terrible lately.
  15. We've been in class since 10 o'clock this morning.
  16. Jackie has been out of town for two days.
  17. I've been to Europe many times. Have you?

Exercise 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. Bob and Jane are old friends. They (know) each other for a long time.

. I don't like this weather. It (be) cold and cloudy for the last three days.

. Paul (learn) a lot of English since he came here.

. Victoria can go to bed now, she (finish) her homework.

. My brother is at home in bed. He (be) sick for a week.

. I (write, not) to my sister in a long time.

. We never. (meet) Betty's parents.

. He never (visit) Hong Kong, but he'd like to go there someday. 9. She already (call) them and (invite) them to dinner.

. Where you (be) all this time? I am waiting for you.

. I am afraid the boss is out. He (go) to the bank.

. You ever (eat) any seafood?

. My parents (be married) for twenty years.

. I (tell) you this so many times before! Is it so difficult to understand it?

. I am so happy that my wedding (come).

. My little cousin already (learn) to read.

. What a strange expression! I (hear, not) it for years.

. Put on your red dress. You (wear, not) for so long!

. Jack and Amalia are the only p~ople I ever (love).

. We (hear, not) from them lately. No news (come) so far.

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions.

1. Have you ever pretended to be ill to get off work or school?

. Have you ever cheated in an exam?

  1. Have you ever ridden a camel or an elephant?
  2. Have you ever read your brother's, sister's or friend's letter which was lying around the house?
  3. Have you ever hidden any of your earnings from the tax inspector?
  4. Have you ever taken anything home with you from the hotel?
  5. Have you ever travelled without a ticket on public transport?
  6. Have you ever told lies and invented stories about yourself to impress other people?
  7. Have you ever met any people who could speak Swahili?

Exercise 9. Ask as in the example.you ever been to the jungle

1. sit on a cactus

. meet a famous person

. win money in a lottery

. spend one whole day doing nothing

. build sand castles

. fly in a private plane

. sleep in a tent.

. find any money in the street

. cut your own hair

. catch a fish

. lose the key to your house

. write a poem

. grow tomatoes and strawberries

Exercise 10. Fill in with since or for.

1. We haven't met them ... four years.

. My parents have owned this house ... last year.

. The children have been outside... early morning.

. Jerry has had her driving license... a month.

. I've been at the office ... ten o'clock.

. David hasn't visited London ... half a year.

. Tom has had his car ... he left school.

. Mr. Parker has been with this company ... it was organized.

. I haven't eaten such delicious food ... ages!

. He hasn't had a cold ... he went in for sport.

11. We've been good neighbours....quite a long time.

12. The cake has been in the oven...thirty minutes.

Exercise 11.Translate the sentences into English.

1. Я надеюсь, что я не сделала ни одной ошибки в этой работе.

. Он счастлив, потому что он влюбился в замечательную девушку.

. - Вы когда-нибудь были в пустыне? - Нет, но я был в джунглях Амазонки.

. Мне всегда нравился английский язык.

. Я вижу, что вы передумали. Что-нибудь случилось?

. Много лет прошло с тех пор, как они расстались.

. Я не был в библиотеке уже очень давно, с тех пор, как сдал экзамен.

. Спасибо, вы спасли мою жизнь.

. Он никогда не был на Аляске, не так ли?

. - Как давно он уже здесь? - Он здесь с утра.

. - Сколько раз вы были в Большом театре? - Я пока там не был.

. Здесь уже целый месяц не было дождя.

. В этом году я еще не отдыхал.

. Снег перестал идти, и светит солнце.

. Она никогда не видела моря.

. Сколько денег ты потратила на вечеринку?

. Вы ведь никогда не летали на воздушном шаре?

. - Я сто лет тебя не видел, где ты был все это время? - Я только что вернулся из Австралии.

. Они друзья. Они дружат с детства.

. Я с утра ничего не ел. Вы что-нибудь приготовили для нас?

Exercise 12. Write the past participles of the following words.

leave win feel lose sleep send spend sit set putthink hit buy find hear sell stop draw blow teach

Exercise 13. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Я давно купила этот словарь. Я давно не покупала новых книг.

. В последний раз он ел мороженое прошлым летом. В последнее время он не ел ничего сладкого.

. Мы видели этого человека очень давно. Мы даже не помним его лица.

. - Вы давно его знаете? - Да, мы встретились очень давно, почти двадцать лет назад.

. Франк давно не видел своих детей и очень по ним соскучился.

. - Давно он приехал? - Он не уезжал, все это время он был здесь.

. Вчера я долго читала новый журнал. Я так давно не читала этот роман, я забыла, о чем он.

. Молодые люди долго встречались (to date), а затем расстались.

Exercise 14. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. I (finish) my course paper. I (finish) it two days ago.

. - You ever (eat) at Maxim's? - Yes, I (eat) there many times. In fact, my friend and I (eat) there last night.

. - What European countries you (visit)? - I (visit) Germany, France and Italy. I (be) in Germany and France in 1998, and in Italy in 1999.

. - He already (talk) to the Dean about the grades? - Yes, he (talk) to him several times and the last time (be) yesterday.

. Jim already (have) lunch. He (have) it an hour ago.

. Erica and I just (see) this movie. We (see) it two days ago.

. Jane already (call) her parents. She (call) them on Saturday evening.

. I (read, not) this bestseller yet, though I (buy) it a couple of months ago.

. - Where is Dick? - He just (go) for a walk. Actually he (leave) a minute ago.

. - I (see, not) you for ages! Where you (be) all this time? - I (come) back from Canada two days ago.

. - When you last (hear) from him?'- We (hear, not) from him since he (go) to the Far East.

. Everybody says you (win) a lot of money. When it (happen)?

. He is staying in bed now. He (break) his leg. Yesterday he (slip) and (fall).

. - It (rain) here lately? - It (rain) hard last night.

. The concert (begin). It (begin) ten minutes ago.

Exercise 15. Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form.

1. Larry is (young) than Stanley.

. Frank is the (young) boy in the group.

. Lucy is (aiel) than my sister.

. Rose's flat is ( nice) than Alice's flat.

. June is (sunny) than April.

. George is not so (strong) as Robert.

. Sally is the (short) girl in her group.

. This is the (cheap) dress in the shop.

. Mr White is not as (fat) as Mr Black.

. This is the (deep) lake in Estonia.

. London is (big) than Tallinn but New York is the (big).

. He is the (lazy) person I have ever met.

. These jackets are (expensive) than those coats.

. Julia's bag isn't as (heavy) as Sally's but it's (heavy) than Nora's bag.

Exercise 16. Choose the right item.

  1. I walk (quick, quickly).
  2. He always drives too (quick, quickly).
  3. He is a very (careless, carelessly) driver.
  4. Jane plays the violin (beautiful, beautifully).
  5. John is a (hard, hardly) worker.
  6. I can do it (easy, easily).
  7. Takeit (easy, easily).
  8. David is a (good, well) tennis player.
  9. He plays tennis very (good, well).
  10. I agree with you (complete, completely).
  11. The light is very (bright, brightly).
  12. It's a (hard, hardly) job, you must work very (hard, hardly).
  13. I (hard, hardly) know them.
  14. I haven't seen them (late, lately).

Exercise 17. Put the adjectives into the comparative and superlative forms.

1. happy 2. pretty 3. grey 4. shy 5. left 6. dry 7. simple 8. joyful 9. accurate 10. real 11. sweet 12. yellow 13. polite 14. angry 15. well-known 16. pregnant 17. fine-looking 18. kind-hearted 19. oldfashioned 20. light-minded 21. absent-minded 22. broad-minded 23. well-bred 24. middle 25. wooden 26. empty 27. medical

Exercise 18. Put the adjectives into the correct form using as ... as, not as (not so) ... as, more (less) ... than.

1. Towns (noisy) villages.

. This year things (good) last year.

. Programmes now (interesting) they used to be.

. Susan (pretty) a flower in May.

. English (easy) Japanese.

. Russian (difficult) Chinese.

. Japanese (easy) English.

. Health (important) money.

. A change (good) a rest.

. Now the situation (bad) last month.

. Cigarettes (harmful) cigars.

. Is London (old) Moscow?

. My life (interesting) used to be.

. I shall be happy (long) you stay with me.

. He(not clever) you think.

. We have known them (long) you have.

. The new clerk (competent) the others.

. This wonderful hotel (expensive) the Ritz.

. Their new car (economical) the old one.

. On Sundays my children don't have to get up (early) as usual.

Exercise 19. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Из двух сестер Эмма более хорошенькая, но менее умная.

. Из четырех братьев Роберт был самым энергичным.

. Он лучше играет в теннис, чем я (tennis player).

. Хосе - лучший игрок в этой футбольной команде.

. Постарайтесь сделать свое сочинение как можно короче, но не забудьте выразить наиболее важные вещи.

. Bсе больше и больше людей хотят изучать английский язык, и им нужны более хорошие учебники.

. Дэвид Копперфильд - самый великолепный Фокусник, которого я когда-либо видела.

. Это был самый плохой день в жизни Чарльза.

. Какое из этих двух лекарств более эффективно?

. Моя бабушка выращивает самые красивые цветы на своей даче.

. Нет ничего лучше, чем чашка горячего, крепкого чая.

. Сейчас многим людям приходится работать гораздо больше, чем прежде.

. Чем скорее ты поймешь это, тем лучше.

. Мой день рождения - самый замечательный день в году.

Exercise 20. Fill in with the correct form of the adjective.. Late.

. This dress is ... fashion.

. You must get off at ... stop.

. I think we shall discuss news a bit ....

. Victor has two friends: Mike and Henry. .... is an artist, ... is a dentist.

. Will you repeat ... word, please.

. What are ... achievements in this science?

.... month Ted passed ... exam.. Near.

. This problem brought her ... to me.

. We walked...to house in silence.

. What's ... metro station here?

. ...time you ought to be more careful.

. Are you getting off at ... stop, madam?

. Will you read ...lines, Mary?. Old.

. My husband is five years ... than me.

. Is your mother as ... as mine?

. Of the six children Tim is...

. My ... sister studies at college.

. - Who is...at the office? - Mr. Harte is, though he is the youngest man here.. Far.

. While walking we went as ... as the river.

How ... is the station from here?

.1 wouldn't trust them very ....

. Rita lives ... from the office than all the other people.

. They found the child in ... corner of the park.

. The inspector went ... into the matter.

. Molly has never read...than chapter 1.

. They never got any ....

. For ...information, see page 49.

. At the party I was sitting at ... end of the table.21. Translate the sentences into English.

1. - Ваша подруга старше вас? - Да, на два года.

. Джордж - самый старший из четырех братьев.

. Мой старший брат - хороший спортсмен.

. Нам придется ждать дальнейших указаний.

. Поздно ночью мы прибыли на последнюю станцию.

. Последние опыты дали интересные результаты.

. Это был последний раз, когда мы видели его.

. В прошлый раз мы так хорошо провели время.

Exercise 22.Write sentences about places you know as in the example:

  1. (beautiful) The most beautiful place I know is Venice.
  2. (expensive)
  3. (cheap)
  4. (cold)
  5. (hot)
  6. (ancient)

Exercise 23.Complete the sentences as in the example:rained more heavily yesterday than today. (heavily)

  1. Ann talks ....................................................Pam. (loud)
  2. He earns........... money.................... his brother. (much)
  3. She is............. student.................. the class. (hard-working)
  4. This is ....................... film ............................all. (exciting)
  5. She runs............................................................. me. (fast)
  6. This exercise is that one. (difficult)
  7. Onassis was one of ................men...............in the world. (rich)

Exercise 24. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the adjective:

1. Which is (large): the United States or Canada?

. What is the name of the (big) port in the United States?

. Moscow is the (large) city in Russia.

. The London underground is the (old) in the world.

. There is a (great) number of cars and buses in the streets of Moscow than in any other city of Russia.

. St. Petersburg is one of the (beautiful) cities in the world.

. The rivers in America are much (big) than those in England.

. The land of Great Britain is (small) than Greenland.

. What is the name of the (high) mountain in Asia?

. The English Channel is (wide) than the straits of Gibraltar.

. Russia is a very (large) country.25. Fill in with as ... as or so ... as.

. Mike is ... tall ... Pete. 2. Kate is not ... nice ... Ann. 3. My room is ... light ... this one. 4. This book is not ... thin ... that one. 5. Sergei is... old ... Michael. 6. She is ... young ... Tom's brother. 7. This woman is ... good ... that one. 8. Nick's English is not ... good ... his friend's. 9.1 am not ... tall ... Pete. 10. This woman is ... young ... that one. 12. I am ... thin ... you. 13. Kate is ... lazy ... her brother. 14. This child is not . . . small . . . that one.

Exercise 26. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Этот дом такой же высокий, как тот. 2. Сегодня вода в реке не такая теплая, как вчера. 3. Ты не такой умный, как папа. 4. Индия не такая большая, как Китай. 5. Темза такая же красивая, как Нева. 6. Его бабушка не такая старая, как дедушка. 7 Яблоки такие же вкусные, как сливы, но не такие вкусные, как груши. 8. Русский музей такой же богатый, как Эрмитаж? 9. Державин не такой знаменитый, как Пушкин. 10. Днепр не такой длинный, как Волга. 11. В прошлом году август был такой же жаркий, как июль.

Exercise 27. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Этот дом выше того. 2. Сегодня вода в реке холоднее, чем вчера. 3. Папа умнее тебя. 4. Китай больше Индии. 5. Его бабушка моложе дедушки. 6. Груши вкуснее яблок. 7. Наша кошка меньше нашей собаки. 8. Мой брат моложе меня. 9. В прошлом году февраль был холоднее января, 10. Днепр короче Волги. 11. Эрмитаж богаче Русского музея.

Exercise 28. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. What is your height? You are taller than me. 2. She felt as strong as her brother. 3. We started earlier than you. 4. He was more careful than I. 5. This student is the most attentive in our group. 6.I need a warmer coat. 7. He is as tired as you. 8. He was one of the most experienced workers at the factory. 9. Better late than never. 10. She was not so attractive as her mother. 11. His work is not so difficult as mine. 12. He was the eldest in the family. 13. It is easier to swim in the sea than in the river. 14. This is the smallest room in our flat.29. Fill in with as ... as, so ... as or than.

. Our house is not ... big ... yours. 2. The new cinema in our district is much bigger ... the old one. 3. We are ... proud of our district ... you are of yours. 4. The house I live in is ... old ... the one my sister lives in. 5. Exercise No.2 is easier ... Exercise No. 3. 6. Nevsky Prospect is more beautiful ... our street. 7. My composition is not ... long ... yours.

Exercise 30. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the adjective:

1. This man is (tall) than that one.

. Asia is (large) than Australia.

. The Volga is (short) than the Mississippi.

. Which building is the (high) in Moscow?

. Mary is a (good) student than Lucy.

, The Alps are (high) than the Urals.

. This garden is the (beautiful) in our town.

. She speaks Italian (good) than English.

. Is the word "newspaper" (long) than the word "book"?

. The Thames is (short) than the Volga.

. The Arctic Ocean is (cold) than the Indian Ocean.

. Chinese is (difficult) than English.

Exercise 31.Complete the sentences using the correct form of the adjective:

1. Oil is (light) than water.

. We shall wait for a (dry) day to go on the excursion.

. A bus is (fast) than a tram.

. Take some of these sweets: they are very (nice). They are (nice) than the sweets in that box.

. He clearly did not like the explanation, and as he listened to it, he became (angry) and (angry).

. He worked (hard) and (hard) as the end of the term came nearer.

. The (tall) trees in the world grow in California.

. Please be (careful) next time and don't spill the milk again.

. Bobby was a (quiet) child. He was (quiet) than his sister.

. Her eyes are (grey) than mine.

. He was the (fat) man in the village.

. As he went on, the box became (heavy) and (heavy).

UNIT IXORGANIZATIONS1. Translate into English., celebrate, assistance, citizen, overseas, trade, various, struggle, dependable, tie, situate, field, help, organize, mark, reliable, commerce, foreign, resident, link, united towns, locale, found, main, establish, aim, comprise, promote, major, progress, include, grow, consolidate, appear, contribute, complex, development, increase, protect, strengthen, ensure, twin cities, difficult, purpose, come into being, mankind, back, defend, humanity, fight, support, provide.2. Make up sentences.

. Progressive, in, many, are, movements, world, the, and, organizations, there.

. At, directed, their, problems, activities, various, facing, are, mankind, solving, today.

. Federation, of, one, the, Twin, of, Cities, World, is, them.

. The, in, being, came, 1942, Federation, into.

. Peace, to, international, helps, broad, it, promoting, links, maintain, to, progress, and.3. Read and give a summary of the text.City Movementmovement came into being at the end of 1942 when the residents and defenders of Stalingrad (nowadays Volgograd) received a telegram from the authorities of the English city Coventry damaged by the German Air Forces. In their telegram the Coventry people expressed their admiration for our soldiers' courage and proposed their friendship.there are more than 1000 twin cities in Europe and Asia, Africa, North and South Americas. In April 1957 the twinned cities' representatives founded the World United Towns Federation and decided to celebrate last Sunday of April as the World Day of Twin Cities.Federation calls all nations for peace consolidation, peaceful coexistence and fraternal mutual assistance. It contributes to expanding exchanges in cultural, educational, informational and economic spheres as well as in trade, sports, tourism and many other fields.World United Towns Federation also acts as a sponsor of different international congresses and conferences of twinned cities and organizes youth rallies. The Federation activities are directed by its Executive Council located in Paris, Francetwinned cities maintain broad international links that promote fruitful cooperation, mutual assistance and friendly relations between various nations, their better understanding, thus serving the cause of peace and progress on the Earth.is the member of the World United Towns Federation too. At present over 200 cities of the Russian Federation have twin cities in different parts of the Globe and cooperate with them in various fields. The united cities' representatives like visiting our country. They show great interest in our fruitful cooperation, appreciating our people as loyal friends and reliable partners.4. Find in the text the sentences:

1. содержащие информацию об истории создания Всемирной Федерации городов-побратимов;

. свидетельствующие о ее значении в мире сегодня;

. освещающие основные сферы деятельности этой организации.

Exercise 5. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) Основать Всемирную федерацию городов-побратимов; 2) быть спонсором многих международных конференций и молодежных съездов; 3) предлагать дружбу; 4) братская взаимопомощь; 5) иметь прочные связи со многими странами; 6) поддерживать дружеские и дипломатические отношения; 7) отмечать Всемирный день городов-побратимов; 8) призывать к мирному сосуществованию; 9) сфера народного образования; 10) представители и жители породненных городов; 11) надежные партнеры; 12) служить делу мира, прогресса; 13) способствовать взаимопониманию; 14) расширять культурные и экономические связи; 15) ценить верных друзей; 16) плодотворное международное сотрудничество.

Exercise 6. Finish the following:

. There are many ... in the world today.

. Their activities arc directed at ... complex and important problems that mankind now.

. Among the most known progressive ... of the world there arc such ones as ... and others.

. The Twin City Movement ... in 1942.

. Nowadays this comprises more than 1000 ... in various parts of ...

. Peace ... and mutual ... arc the ... of the World United Towns Federation activities.

. The all-round international ... serves the cause of ... and ... on the Earth.7. Answer the questions:

. When was the World United Towns Federation founded?

. How many cities does it unite at present?

. Is this world known organization a progressive one? Why?

. What spheres arc the Federation activities concentrated on?

. When is the World Day of Twinned Cities celebrated?

. Is the Russian Federation also a member of this organization?

. How many cities of our country have united cities abroad?

. Do you know any of them?

. Can you name the twin cities of your town?

. Have you ever been in any of them?

. What is the attitude of the twin cities' residents to our people?

. What is your opinion: are various ties between the united cities useful for their citizens or not?

. Can you prove it?8. Make up sentences:

. Mankind, an, role, various, the, important, of, plays, UN, of, affairs, the, in.

. Being, it, into, 1945, came, in.

. The, comprises, today, countries, UN, 200, over.

. Aim, to, international, main, is, security, maintain, and, its, to, peace.

. To, among, the, cooperation, UN, friendly, and, mission, relations, is, nations, develop.

. Represented, the, all, General, states, in, arc, member, Assembly.9. Read and give a summary of the text.United Nations OrganizationUnited Nations Organization (the UN - for short) plays a very important role in different affairs of mankind, almost in every field of the human activities.UN came into being in October, 24, 1945, as a result of the historic victory of the Anti - Hitler Coalition in World War II, when its Charter had been ratified by France, the USSR, Great Britain, the USA, China and some other states.1945 the UN membership has increased from 51 to more than 200 states. Every member state has only one vote.main aim of the UN is to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations and cooperation among the Globe nations in various spheres. One of the major principles of the UN is the conviction, that economic development for all peoples of the world is the surest way to achieve political, economic and social security.United Nations Organization was founded on the following basic principles:

) All the member-states are sovereign and equal.

) They are to settle all international disputes by peaceful means.

) They are to render the UN every assistance in accordance with the United Nations' Charter.are 6 main organs in the UN: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the Secretariat.General Assembly is the organ wherein all member-states are represented. It also elects the members of the Security, Economic, Social and Trusteeship Councils. The General Assembly and the Security Council elect the judges to the International Court of Justice and appoint the UN General Secretary.members of the General Assembly talk to each other in many languages, but officially there are only six main languages: Chinese, English, Russian, Spanish, Arabian and French.UN Headquarters are situated in New York, Manhattan, the USA. There is an allegoric statue by Evgeny Vuchetich, an outstanding Russian sculptor, in front of the UN building. The statue, named "We'll beat our swords into the plough shares" ("Перекуем мечи на орала" - words from the Bible), is the symbol of the UN's call for universal peace and cooperation among the Globe nations.International Court of Justice has its seat at the Hague, Netherlands.UN regular sessions are held annually, beginning with the fall. As a rule, a limited number of individual visitors is admitted to the meetings at the UN Headquarters.the very beginning the United Nations Organization has been working at the global and national levels. The UN influence and importance are steadily growing. It is engaged everywhere, helping various nations to escape from poverty and hunger. The United Nations Organization also promotes the children survival and the environment improvement, as well as all women's progress, protecting human rights and democracy.present the United Nations Organization continues to be a single international institution doing its best to ensure that economic expansion and globalization are guided by the policies that are aimed at providing welfare and sustainable development for all the Globe nations.10. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) Организация Объединенных Наций; 2) ратифицировать устав ООН; 3) различные сферы человеческой деятельности; 4) основной принцип, убеждение; 5) играть важную роль; 6) решать различные споры мирными средствами; 7) главная цель; 8) вернейший путь к достижению политической безопасности; 9) оказывать всяческую помощь; 10) сохранить мир; 11) суверенные/равноправные страны; 12) экономическое развитие; 13) избирать судей в Международный суд; 14) в соответствии с уставом; 15) способствовать установлению дружественных отношений; 16) международное сотрудничество;17)Генеральный секретарь ООН, Генеральная Ассамблея;18)помочь избежать бедности и голода; 19) Совет безопасности; 20) проводить регулярные сессии; 21) попечительский совет; 22) экономическая экспансия; 23) стабильное развитие; 24) способствовать демократии и соблюдению прав человека; 25) работать на различных уровнях; 26) защита окружающей среды; 27) допускать ограниченное число посетителей; 28) руководствоваться политикой, направленной на обеспечение благосостояния народа; 29) сохранить жизнь детей; 30) растущее влияние и значение ООН.

Exercise 11. Answer the questions:

. What is the full name of the UN?

. When was this organization founded?

. Who ratified the UN Charter?

. What principles was the UN established on?

. What organs does it consist of?

. What organ are all the member-states represented in?

. Who appoints the General Secretary of the UN and elects the judges to the International Court of Justice?

. Do you know the UN General Secretary's name?

. What arc the UN official languages and why?

. How many member - states does the UN comprise today?

. Where are the UN Headquarters and the International Court of Justice situated?

. Speak about the UN influence and importance.12. Read and translate:you know?

. "Living planet" is an international ecological movement. Its mission is to contribute to the solution of the global ecological problems by means of developing international and interregional cooperation at various levels: governments and parliaments, business and scientific organizations, different regions and citizens. The main principles of this movement are equality of all the participants' rights, voluntariness, glasnost and legality.

. "Rainbow Keepers " is a half-official radical ecological movement of' Russia. Its participants are young, but all of them arc people of action. They organize long time protest camps against various dangerous projects, both in our country and in East Europe.

. The organization "Soldiers' Mothers" was founded in 1991. It provides practical assistance to the conscripts and their families.organization also helps people through the process of appealing for exemption from or deferment of military service for reasons of health, extreme family hardships or conscientious objection. It helps to provide medical and legal consultations as well as moral support and education on legal rights and how to exercise them.

. "The Kedr"(Cedar) is the ecological party founded in 1994 on the basis of the Kedr constructive ecological movement set up in 1993. It claims today to be the party of the future. The party is oriented towards the young people between 18-30 years of age. Its strategic goal is to create conditions for the nation's healthy, safe and full life, for spiritual and cultural education and development of our people. It does its best to elaborate a set of the state and public measures to protect Russia and the people living on its large territory.exercises1. Сomplete the sentences with one of these adverbs:, badly, dangerously, fast, heavily, quietly

It's raining....

He sings very…

They came in ….

She shouted at me ….She can run very ….

He was driving ....2. Choose a verb (A) + an adverb (B) to complete the sentences.)come , know, sleep, win, explain, listen, think, work.) carefully, clearly, easily, hard, quickly, well, well

Im going to tell you something very important, so …!

Ann! I need your help…!

They … .At the end of the day they're always tired.

I'm tired this morning. I didn't …last night.

. You're a much better tennis player than me. When we play, you always ……….

………..before you answer the question.

I've met Alice a few times but I don't …….her very ………...

Our teacher isn't very good. Sometimes he doesn't …things very… .3. Which is right?

. Don't eat so quick/quickly. It's not good for you.

. Why are you angry/angrily? I haven't done anything.

. Can you speak slow/slowly, please?

. Come on, Dave! Why are you always so slow/slowly?

. Bill is a very careful/carefully driver.

. Jane is studying hard/hardly for her examinations.

. 'Where's Diane?' 'She was here but she left sudden/suddenly.'

. Please be quiet/quietly. I'm studying.

. Some companies pay their workers very bad/badly.

. Those oranges look nice/nicely. Can I have one?4. Put in good or well.

. Your English is very … . You speak English very … .

. Jackie did very …in her exams.

. The party was very … .I enjoyed it very much.

. Martin has a difficult job but he does it … .

. How are your parents? Are they …?

. Did you have a …holiday? Was the weather …?5. Write what the underlined word is; adjective or adverb.

  1. Fast runners win races.

2. Mathematics is difficult.

  1. She's a good pianist.
  2. She behaved rudely to her boss.
  3. You've done well in your test.
  4. The clowns are very funny.
  5. She's a pretty girl.
  6. He runs fast.
  7. Ann is very sad.
  8. She plays the piano beautifully.
  9. Father is very busy in his office.
  10. The doctor arrived immediately.

Exercise 6.Underline the correct item.

  1. He left the room quiet / quietly.
  2. Jane works hard / hardly.
  3. He's a very nice / nicely man.
  4. The sun is shining bright / brightly.
  5. Smoking is bad / badly for your health.
  6. She behaves very good / well.
  7. He always dresses smart / smartly.
  8. He shouted angry / angrily at me.
  9. This chair is comfortable / comfortably.
  10. He smiled sad / sadly.
  11. You drive very slow / slowly.

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the correct comparative and superlative forms.

  1. cheaply more cheaply most cheaply 5. late
  2. fast6. loudly
  3. quickly 7. hard
  4. Early 8. politely

Exercise 8. Complete these sentences. Use can or can't + one of these verbs:

come find hear see speak

1.I'm sorry but we …. to your party next Saturday.

.I like this hotel room. You ...the mountains from the window.

.You are speaking very quietly. I … you.

4.Have you seen my bag? I …it.

5.Catherine got the job because she …five languages.

Exercise 9. Complete these sentences. Use can't or couldn't + one of these verbs:

eat decide find go go sleep

1.I was tired but I…I wasn't hungry yesterday. I … my dinner.

2.Ann doesn't know what to do. She …

3.I wanted to speak to Martin yesterday but I …him.

.Jim…to the concert next Saturday. He has to work.

5.Paula …to the meeting last week. She was ill.

Exercise 10. Complete the sentences. Use must + one of these verbs:, go, go, learn, meet, wash, win

. We… to the bank today. We haven't got any money.

. Marilyn is a very interesting person. You … her.

. My hands are dirty. I … them.

. You …to drive. It will be very useful.

. I…to the post office. I need some stamps.

. The game tomorrow is very important for us. We ….

. You can't always have things immediately. You … patient.11. Put in I must or I had to.

. I… go to the bank yesterday to get some money.

. It's late. I…go now.

. I don't usually work on Saturdays but last Saturday… work.

. I...get up early tomorrow. I've got a lot to do.

. I went to London by train last week. The train was full and I…stand all the way.

. I was nearly late for my appointment this morning. I…run to get there on time.

. I forgot to phone David yesterday. I… phone him later today.12. Complete the sentences. Use mustn't or needn't + one of these verbs:, forget, hurry, lose, wait, write

. The windows aren't very dirty. You …them.

. We have a lot of time. We ….

. Keep these documents in a safe place. You …them.

. I'm not ready yet but you …for me. You can go now and I'll come later.

. We …to turn off the lights before we leave.

. I…the letter now. I can do it tomorrow.13. Find the sentences with the same meaning.

. We can leave the meeting early.

. We must leave the meeting early.

. We mustn't leave the meeting early.

. We needn't leave the meeting early.

. We had to leave the meeting early.. We must stay until the end.. We couldn't stay until the end.. We can't stay until the end.. We needn't stay until the end.. We can stay until the end.14. Put in must / had to / mustn't / needn't.

. You … go. You can stay here if you want.

. It's a fantastic film. You… see it.

. We've got enough food, so we …go shopping.

. We didn't have any food yesterday, so we …go shopping.

. I want to know what happened. You …tell me.

. You …tell Sue what happened. I don't want her to know.

. I…hurry or I'll be late.

. 'Why were you so late?' 'I …wait half an hour for a bus.'

. We … decide now. We can decide later.15. Complete the sentences. Use you should + one of these verbs:, go, take, visit, watch, wear

. When you play tennis,… the ball.

. It's late and you're very tired. …to bed.

.…your teeth twice a day.

. If you have time, …the Science Museum. It's very interesting.

. When you're driving, …a seat belt.

. It's too far to walk from here to the station. …a taxi.16. You ask a friend for advice. Write questions with "Do you think I should ... ?"

. You are in a shop. You are trying on a jacket. (buy?)ask your friend: Do you think I should…

. You can't drive. (learn?)ask your friend: Do you think …

. You don't like your job. (get another job?)ask your friend: …

. You are going to have a party. (invite Gary?)ask your friend: …17. Write sentences with I think ... should ... or I don't think ... should ....

. It's late. (go home now).

. That coat is too big for you. (buy)

. You don't need your car. (sell it).

. Diane needs a rest. (have a holiday).

. Sally and Colin are too young. (get married)

. You're not well this morning. (go to work).

. James isn't well today. (go to the doctor).

. The hotel is too expensive for us. (stay there).18. What do you think? Write sentences with should.

. I think … .

. I think everybody … .

. I think … .

. I don't think … .

. I think I should. … .19. Complete the sentences. Use have to or has to + one of these verbs:, read, speak, travel, wear'

. My eyes are not very good. I …glasses.

. At the end of the course all the students …a test.

. Mary is studying literature. She…a lot of books.

. Albert doesn't understand much English. You…very slowly to him.

. Kate is not often at home. She …a lot in her job.20. Complete the sentences. Use have to or had to + one of these verbs:, buy, change, go, walk

. We…home last night. There were no buses.

. It's late. I …now. I'll see you tomorrow.

. I went to the supermarket after work yesterday. I …some food.

. This train doesn't go all the way to London. You …at Bristol.

. We did an exam yesterday. We …six questions out of ten.21. Complete the questions. Some are present and some are past.

.I have to get up early tomorrow.

.George had to wait a long time.

.Liz has to go somewhere.

.We had to pay a lot of money.

.I have to' do some work.. What time ….?. How long …?. Where… ?. How much …?. What exactly…?22. Write sentences with don't/doesn't/didn't have to ....

. Why are you going out? You….

. Why is Ann waiting? She ….

. Why did you get up early? You ….

. Why is Paul working so hard? He ….

. Why do you want to leave now? We ….23. Which is correct? Sometimes must and have to are both correct.

. It's a great film. You must see / have to see it.

. In many countries, men must do / have to do military service.

. You can't park your car here for nothing. You must pay / have to pay.

. I didn't have any money with me last night, so I must borrow / had to borrow some.

. I eat too much chocolate. I really must stop / have to stop.

. Why is Paula going now?' 'She must meet / has to meet somebody.

What's wrong? You must tell / have to tell me. I want to help you.24. Write some things that you (or your friends or family) have to do or had to do.

. (every day) … .

. (every day) … .

. (tomorrow) … .

. (yesterday)… .25. Write sentences with might.

.(it's possible that I'll go to the cinema)

.(it's possible that I'll see you tomorrow)

.(it's possible that Ann will forget to phone)

.(it's possible that it will snow today)

.. (it's possible that I'll be late tonight)sentences with might not.

. (it's possible that Mary will not be here) .

. (it's possible that I won't have time to meet you)26. Somebody is asking you about your plans. You have some ideas but you are not sure. Choose from the list and write sentences with I might., go away, Italy, Monday, new car, taxi

.Where are you going for your holidays?

.What are you doing at the weekend?

.When will you see Ann again?

.What are you going to have for dinner?

. How are you going to get home tonight?

. I hear you won some money. What are you going to do with it?'m not sure ... .don't know. I … .'m not sure... .don't know… .'m not sure… .haven't decided yet…. .27. Write three things that you might do tomorrow.XGreens1. Read and give a summary of the text.there are various progressive movements and organizations in the world. They are working for peace consolidation, the environment protection and in many other spheres connected with the security of mankind and further progress on the Earth. The Greens are among the most known ones.movement as an ecological force is relatively young. It came into being in Britain in the 1960-s. Other Greens' organizations and parties of Europe were created a decade later. They emerged in 1973.Greens choose a sunflower, a symbol of nature, as their emblem, because the sun, the greens and grains are 3 main sources of life.Greens come out with the demands of more active protection of the Environment. They organize peaceful strikes and demonstrations, appeal to their countries' Parliaments and take other similar actions.aim is to influence and force the Governments of their own and other countries to issue a lawful ban on the monopolies poisoning the Environment with their uncontrolled industrial activities and wastes.the Greens in all European countries feel deep responsibility for the destinies of mankind. That's why they also demand a total ban on the biological and chemical weapons, substantial cuts in the strategic nuclear arsenals and total disarmament.the Greens developed in various countries of Europe, their interest to cooperate with each other increased. Thus, the first European organization was founded in 1984 when the Greens of the UK, Benelux, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland met in Belgium and formed the European Coordination of the Greens parties.the years their membership grew, new initiatives and new ideas emerged. That's why in 1993 it was decided to transform the Coordination into the European Federation of the Greens' parties. At present there are over 30 Greens parties in various countries.Federation mission is to develop socially just and sustainable Europe. The European Greens aim. at the ecological development. According to their point of view the economy must adapt to what the natural environment can tolerate. The Greens arc sure that the ecological development should be based on democracy, transparency, gender equality, the right of all people to express themselves and participate in the decision making.2. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) Прогрессивные организации и движения мира; 2) укрепление мира и безопасности; 3) защита окружающей среды; 4) выступать с требованиями; 5) сотрудничать в различных областях; 6) социально справедливый; 7) издать законный запрет; 8) мирные забастовки и демонстрации; 9) воззвания к парламентам всех стран; 10) оказать влияние; 11) отравлять окружающую среду; 12) требовать запрета химического и бактериологического оружия; 13) промышленные отходы; 14) участвовать в принятии решений; 15) бесконтрольная деятельность; 16) стабильная Европа; 17) сотрудничать с разными экологическими движениями и партиями; 18) создать Европейскую федерацию партий зеленых; 19) судьбы человечества; 20) право на самовыражение; 21) полное разоружение; 22) чувствовать глубокую ответственность; 23) быть основанным на демократии и равенстве; 24) вызывать интерес; 25) предпринимать аналогичные действия; 26) прозрачная политика; 27) точка зрения.

Exercise 3. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:

. There are many various movements and organizations in the world today.

. Most of them are working in the field of new computer technologies.

. The Greens are among the world's most known progressive organizations.

. This organization emerged in the USA last century.

. The Greens' emblem is the sun because it is the main source of life.

. To obtain their goals the Greens use different military actions.

. They come out with the demands of more active protection of the environment and peace consolidation.

. They want to develop sustainable and just Europe.

. That's why they combat against basic human rights and democracy.

. All people of our planet have the right to express themselves and participate in decision making.4. Read and give a summary of the text.organization has been campaigning against the environment degradation since 1971. It was then when a small boat full of volunteers (the founders of the Greenpeace) and journalists sailed from Vancouver, Canada, to a small island, north of Alaska, where the USA Government was conducting the underground nuclear tests. They wanted to save the sea otters, eagles and other wildlife.the Greenpeace is a well-known international organization that prioritizes the Globe's most important environmental campaigns:

Stop climate change!

Protect ancient forests!

Save the oceans!

Stop whaling!

Say no to genetic engineering!

Stop nuclear tests!

Eliminate toxic chemicals!

Encourage sustainable trade!in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, the Greenpeace has about 3 million supporters worldwide, as well as their national and regional offices in more than 40 countries of Europe, Asia, both Americas and the Pacific. This organization exists because our fragile Earth needs help not to perish.a global organization, the Greenpeace focuses on the worldwide threats to our planet's biodiversity and the environment. Its activists use research, lobbying and diplomacy to pursue their goals, as well as non-violent conflicts to raise the level and quality of the public debates.they and their supporters in various countries of the Globe strongly believe that their struggle to preserve the future of our planet is not only their own concern, it is about all people of the Earth.'s why they say in a loud voice: "When the last tree is cut, the last river is poisoned and the last fish is dead, we shall discover that we can't eat money! So, Act now!"5. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) основатели Гринпис; 2) проводить кампании по спасению лесов, океанов, морей; 3) спасти живую природу; 4) проводить подземные ядерные испытания; 5) преследовать свои цели; 6) добровольцы и сторонники; 7) повысить уровень и качество публичных дискуссий; 8) сохранить будущее нашей планеты; 9) забота всех людей земли; 10) остановить изменение климата; 11) отравлять реки; 12) сказать нет генной инженерии; 13) региональные офисы по всему миру; 14) угроза биологическому разнообразию; 15) для защиты окружающей среды; 16) хрупкая планета; 17) организация глобального значения.

Exercise 6. Put in a logical order:Earth is our common home in the Universe.to the decision of the XXVII session of the UN General Assembly June, 5, is celebrated as the World Environment Day.interacting with Nature people changed and polluted it.of one country are no longer sufficient to solve the problem., 22, the vernal equinox day, is announced by the UNESCO as the Earth Day.derives from Nature almost everything: food, building materials, energy, etc.wastes, radioactive substances, water contamination and forests shrinking cause great damage to the Environment.international cooperation in scientific research and other coordinate protective measures can do it., people of the Earth, must preserve our Nature both for ourselves and the generations to come.problem of protecting and improving the Environment has assumed a global character.7. Translate into English and make up a dialogue.

1. Какие прогрессивные движения и организации вы знаете?

. Что общего у этих организаций?

. Чем они отличаются?

. Когда были созданы первые партии зеленых в Европе?

. Сколько таких партий в странах Европы сейчас?

. Каковы их основные цели и задачи?

. А что можно сказать о Гринпис?

. Назовите главные задачи этого движения.

. Есть ли последователи и сторонники у него сегодня?

. Какими способами добиваются своих целей обе эти организации?

. Насколько эти способы эффективны?

. А что можно сказать о влиянии таких движений и организаций в мире и настоящее время?

Grammar exercises1. Match numbers with letters.

. You usually start your work at nine o'clock,

. Tamara can't speak any foreign language,

. He hasn't got a pet,

. You can always trust me,

. They never argue with me,

. Helen didn't come to the party,

. We are going to see the ocean tomorrow,

. You haven't been to the Bolshoi before,

. He isn't lazy,

. Pamela won't date Jack,

. I am lucky,

. Pay attention,

. Don't be late,

. Nobody called for me,

. Everyone was very happy,

. Nothing could be better,

. Let's start,. can she?. do they?. has he?. don't you?. aren't I?. will you?. did they?. weren't they?. shall we?. will (would) you?. could it?. will she?. aren't we?. can't you?. did she? . .. is he?. have you?

Exercise 2.Complete the sentences.

1.There are no stars in the sky, ... ?

2.Ted didn't come to class yesterday, ... ?

.Our teacher gave us much homework to do, ... ?

.You didn't have to lie to her, ... ?

.It snows a lot in Siberia, ... ?

.It never rains in the Gobi, …?

7.Those are your gloves, …?

.I am a fool, …?

10.He has never been to Jamaica, … ?

.The Browns will never sell their house, ... ?

Exercise 3.Complete the sentences.

.He can cook well, ... ?

2.You can't buy happiness, ... ?

3.Rob must keep his word, ... ?

4.You mustn't smoke here, …?

.Let's start working, ... ?

.Let's not argue, …?

7.Make him take his words back, … ?

8.Don't shout at me, ... ?

9.Nothing ever happens to me, ... ?

.Everything depends on the situation … ?

.Everyone will be present at the conference, ... ?

.Nobody has ever thought about it, ... ?

.Something should be done to help them, ... ?

.I used to live in the street, ... ?

.He never used to drink coffee, ... ?

.We need a new washing. machine, … ?

.You needn't worry about it, ... ?

.Everyone is informed about it, ... ?

19.Nobody phoned me today, ... ?

20.No one agrees with him, ... ?

Exercise 4.Translate the following sentences.

1. - Кто он такой? - Это Денис, мой друг.

. -Чем он занимается? - Он врач.

. Где ваш сын проводит вечера?

. - Это ваша собака? - Нет. - А чья она? - Никто не знает.

. Кто из вас говорит по-испански?

. Во сколько вы заканчиваете работу? Вы никогда не приходите домой рано, не так ли?

. В этом году немного фруктов, не так ли?

Exercise 5.Comment on the use of Future Perfect

. We shall have left by the time you arrive.

. They will have repaired your car by then.

. The decorator will have painted the room by Tuesday.

. I'll already have done the work by the time you come back.

. I still won't have finished reading the book by four o'clock.

. He will have left by now.

. Will you have written the essay by tomorrow?

. We shall have arranged everything by that time.6.Translate the following sentences.

1. Завтра к двум часам мы уже сдадим все экзамены.

. К тому времени, как вы вернетесь, я уже уеду.

. Если вы позвоните в восемь часов, то они еще не приедут.

. Они надеются, что отремонтируют квартиру к осени.

. Мы напишем статью к утру, но мы не закончим иллюстрации.

. Я закончу школу к лету.

. Надеюсь, что я найду работу к концу года.

. Мы уверены, что узнаем новости к вечеру.

. Если вы придете до девяти часов утра, то они еще не уйдут.

. Она уже накроет на стол до того, как придут гости.

Exercise 7.Comment on the use of Past Perfect.

. The builders had finished the work by the end of the day.

. The train had left by the time we reached the station.

. She had typed the text and was looking through the files.

. When the postman came, I hadn't finished breakfast yet.

. Mother had cooked supper and was watching television.

. The policeman asked me if I had seen the accident.

. The rain .had stopped and the sun was shining.

. He explained that e couldn't pay as he had spent all his money.

. Hardly had the man got out of his car, when he was arrested.

. The teacher asked if we had understood everything.

. My father had had dinner and was looking through the papers.

. We learned that Nick had been ill since he returned from a business trip.

. They were good friends. They had known each other for a long time.

. The work was much more difficult than we had expected.

. They left after we had discussed the programme.8.Complete the following sentences.

. The plane not (land) yet, but a lot of people (wait) in the terminal.

. When I (wake up) in the morning, the rain (stop) already, and the birds (sing).

. My neighbor (be) back some two months before I (see) him.

. We (walk) in silence. We already (exchange) the news and now (think) about it.

. Hardly he (open) the file, when he (find) the information which he needed.

. Rick (be in love) with Lora for a long time before he (propose) to her.

. The old man used to tell his grandchildren about the war in which he ( take part).

. The book turned out to be much more interesting than I (expect).

. They (arrange) everything by evening, and (wait) for the guests.

. Tanya (train) hard before she (become) a professional dancer.

. We wondered if they (get) our message.

. The young man thanked his parents for all they (do) for him.

. When I first (see) her, I (think) she (be) the most intelligent woman I ever (meet).

. Even though the house (be) empty for two years, it (be) in good condition.

. The patient thanked the doctor for all the attention he (give) him for the past six months.

. Ted said that his father's opinion always (be) important for him.

. He was happy. His dream(come) true.

. The room looked beautiful, as she (change) the furniture and the curtains.9. Change the sentences as in the example.: Helen finished the work. Then she went out. - Helen went out after she had finished her work.

. Mother did all the homework. Then she sat down.

. The bell rang. Then the pupils entered the classroom.

. Sally spent all the money in her purse. Then she left the shop.

. The clock struck nine. Then Jack woke up.

. Andrew saved some money. Then he got married.

. He lost all his money. Then he stopped playing cards.

. I asked him three times for the money. Then he paid me.

. He read the newspaper from beginning to end. Then he went to bed.

. The sun set. The farmers stopped working.

. We answered all the questions. Then we left the examination room.

. Little Mary said "Please". Then I gave her a bar of chocolate.10. Translate the following sentences.

1. Они обсуждали новости, которые только что получили.

. Она приготовила все к пяти часам и ждала гостей.

. Едва я дошел до угла, как услышал чьи-то шаги сзади.

. Секретарь сообщил, что отправил факс в Нью-Йорк.

. Я еще не заснула, когда услышала стук в дверь.

. Он сожалел, что отказался от приглашения.

. Когда мы пришли в театр, спектакль уже начался.

. Я думала о том, что он мне рассказал.

. Мальчики перестали играть в футбол и медленно шли домой.

. Женщина объяснила, что сама вырастила эти чудесные цветы.

. Мы были удивлены, когда узнали, что он прошел интервью и получил работу.

. Едва мы сдали работы (to hand in), как зазвонил телефон.

. Когда они ушли, мы вспомнили, что не показали им фотографии.

. Он сказал, что только что вернулся из Китая.

. Я очень удивилась, когда узнала, что он написал этот бестселлер.

. Он болел уже неделю, когда родственники послали за врачом.

. Едва мы пообедали, как пришли гости.

. Дети потеряли собачку и искали ее в саду.

. Директор спросил меня, как давно я в этом деле.

Exercise 11. Complete the following sentences.

. - You (get) to class on time yesterday morning? - No. By the time I (get) there, it (begin) already.

. -You (see) Jack yesterday? - Yes, it (be) good to see him again. I not (see) him for a long time.

. - You (enjoy) the concert on Saturday night? - Very much. I not (go) to a concert" in a long time.

. When Paul walked into the kitchen after dinner last night, his wife (wash) the dishes, so he took a towel to help her.

. By the time Nelly walked into the kitchen after dinner, her husband (wash) already the dishes and (put) them away.

. - By the time I (get) home, my sister (make) already dinner for us. - What you (do) after dinner? - We wanted to go to a movie Galaxy Invaders, but my mother (see) it, so we (go) to Ghost Ship instead. It (be) pretty good.12. Complete the following sentences.Modern Picturerich American (go) 1 to Paris and (buy) 2 there a very strange picture which was painted. by a fashionable modern artist. The American (think) 3 that the picture was fine because he (pay) 4 a lot of money for it. When he (come) 5 back to his hotel, he (try) 6 to hang it, but he(cant not) 7 (say) 8 which the top or which the bottom of the picture (be) 9. So he thought of a plan. He (hang) 10 the painting in the dining-room and invited the artist to dinner. When the artist came, they (sit) 11 down to dinner. While they (eat) 12, the artist looked at the picture several times but (say) 13 nothing. It seemed that he never (see) 14 it before. The American thought: "If he not (recognize) 15 his work, I (ask) 16 him about it myself. I (make) 17 him (speak) 18!" But at that very moment the artist (rise) 19 from his chair and came up to the painting. "Why, my friend," he said, "What you (do) 20 with my picture? You (put) 21 it upside down!" The American smiled. "Why you not (tell) 22 me about it at once? I was sure I (do) 23 it properly." "Well, you see, I wasn't sure myself at first," answered the artist, "but now, I must say that we both (make) 24 a mistake."13. Translate the following sentences.

1. Она была счастлива, что тяжелые времена прошли.

. Когда мы вернулись, все хотели знать, где мы были.

. Я надеялась, что он сделал правильный выбор.

. Мы были коллегами. Мы проработали вместе десять лет.

.Я была уверена, что никогда раньше не слышала этого выражения.

. Судья объявил, что он изменил ,свое мнение об этом деле.

. Они поняли, что жизнь очень изменилась.

. Оказалось, что эта женщина уже тринадцать лет была нашей соседкой.

. Он пришел к нам за помощью, потому что всегда нам верил.

. Адвокат был доволен - он получил хорошие новости.

. Он был благодарен своим родителям. Они так много сделали для него.

. Мартин ничего не ответил. Жизнь научила его быть осторожным.

. Марина выглядела необычно - она изменила прическу (hairstyle).

14. Когда мы встретились, то мой одноклассник сказал, что я очень изменилась.

UNITXI1.) Read the text and try to focus on its essential facts. Choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph:

) The National Symbols 2) The Territory of the Russian Federation 3) The Climate 4) The Natural Resources 5) The Population 6) The Head of the State 7) The Surface of the Country) Make a précis of the text, using the following phrases:

. The title of the text is... 2. The text is about... The text deals with... 3. The text covers such points as... 4. It should be underlined that... 5. In conclusion, I may say that... 6. To my mind... In my opinion...RUSSIAN FEDERATIONRussian Federation (Russia) is the world's largest country in area. It extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea, and from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. It is located in Europe and Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers. Russia borders many countries, such as Finland, the Ukraine, the Baltic States, China, Mongolia, and others.surface of Russia is various. You can see lowlands and highlands, forests and wide grasslands on its territory. The Russian Federation is situated on two plains. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, which separate Europe and Asia, the Caucasus, the Altai. There are many rivers and lakes in our country. Major rivers include the Volga in Europe, the Yenisei, the Ob, the Lena in Asia. Lake Baikal in Siberia is the world's deepest lake.are different climatic zones on the vast area of our country. In the north, it is very cold, even in summer. The central part of the country has a mild climate. In the south, it is warm, even in winter. The climate of Siberia is continental: summers are hot and dry and winters are very cold.has abundant natural resources, which, besides large areas of forests, vast fertile soils, and a great water supply, include large deposits of gas, coal, iron ore, etc. Three quarters of the minerals wealth are concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.population of Russia is over 150 million people. Most of Russia's people (over 80 per cent) are ethnic Russians, but more than 100 minority nationalities also live in our country. The European part of the country is densely populated. Most of the people (about 70 per cent) prefer to live in cities, towns, and their outskirts. The official language of the country is Russian.head of the state is the President, who is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The President appoints the ministers, but they must be approved by the Federal Assembly. The head of the government is the Prime Minister.Russian flag was adopted in 1991. It has three horizontal stripes which symbolize: white - the earth, blue - the sky, red - the freedom. Besides the Russian flag, there is another national symbol of Russia - a two-headed eagle..Read and give a summary of the text.is the capital of Russia, our Motherland. It was founded in 1147 as a fortress on the Moskva river. The city was ruined during the Tartar invasion in the 13th century. The city was gradually restored and became stronger. The Napoleon army in 1812 destroyed Moscow by fire, but Moscow was soon rebuilt and developed again. Moscow is more than 850 years old. Much water has flowed under its bridges, and many historic events have left their traces on the city's face.Moscow is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities of the world. It is one of Russia's major industrial cities with the population of 9.5 million people. Its total area is about 900 thousand square kilometers. Moscow is a political centre, where the government of our country works.is a cultural centre. It attracts tourists from all over the world. Moscow is known for its beautiful cathedrals, monuments, theatres, museums, etc. The Bolshoi Theatre, the Tretyakov Art Gallery, the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum, the Kremlin are well-known even abroad. Red Square with its multi- domed St Basil's Cathedral is the heart of Moscow.is the city of higher educational institutions. Moscow State University, which is named after the greatest Russian scientist M. Lomonosov, is famous all over the world.people of Russia are proud of their magnificent and beautiful capital.3. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) самая большая страна; 2) простирается; 3) общая площадь; 3) свыше; 4) около; 5) граничит с; 6) такие как; 7) низменности; 8) нагорье; 9) расположена на; 10) самые длинные горные цепи; 11) которые отделяют; 12) на севере; 13)на юге;14) даже летом; 15) большие залежи; 16) железная руда; 16) три четверти; 17) по происхождению; 18) густо заселена; 19) окраина; 20) глава государства; 21) главнокомандующий вооруженными силами; 22) должны быть одобрены; 23) глава правительства; 24) был принят; 25) которые символизируют; 26) двуглавый орел; 27) постепенно восстанавливался; 28) развивалась снова; 29) утекло; 30) оставили следы; 31) со всего мира; 32) соборы; 33) музей изобразительных искусств; 34) за границей; 35) многокупольный; 36) высшие учебные заведения; 37)назван в честь; 38) гордятся; 39) величественный.

Exercise 4.) Find in the texts the words, which have the similar meanings as the following words:, territory, whole, different, a lot of, plentiful, to contain, towns, liberty, to ruin, nice, famous, centre;) Find in the texts the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following words:, narrow, in the south, hot, small, majority, vertical, black, to restore, weaker, above, agricultural.5. Fill in the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you:

. Russia b... many different countries. 2. On the vast Russian area, you can see wide g... 3. The Urals mountain c... separate Europe and Asia. 4. Some parts of Russia have a m... climate. 5. There are large d... of natural resources on the territory of Russia. 6. Most of m... wealth is in Siberia and Far East. 7. They live on the o... of the city. 8. Moscow was founded in 1147 as a f... 9. Moscow is one of the m... industrial cities. 10. The g... of the country works in Moscow.6. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:

. The Russian Federation is ...

. It extends ...

. Russia borders ...

. Its total area is ...

. The Urals mountain chains separate ...

. There are...

. It is ...

. The central part has ...

. Russia has ...

. The population of Russia is ...

. The capital of the country is ...

. The head of the state is ...

. The Russian flag was adopted ...

. It has ...

. We are proud of ...7. Answer the questions about Russia:

) What territory does the country occupy?

) What is its total area?

) What countries does Russia border?

) What are the specific features of the surface of Russia?

) What are the longest mountain chains?

) What are the major rivers of Russia?

) Where is the world's deepest lake situated?

) What climatic zones are there in Russia?

) Where are winters very cold in Russia?

) What natural resources is Russia rich in?

) Where is the most of the mineral wealth?

) How many million people is the population of Russia?

) What part of the country is densely populated?

) How many minority nationalities live in the Russian Federation?

) Who is the head of the state?

) Who is the head of the government?

) When was the Russian flag adopted?

) What do three stripes on the Russian flag symbolize?

) What is the capital of our Motherland?

) Why does Moscow attract tourists from all over the world?8. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:

. Russia borders many countries. 2. The area of the Russian Federation is not large. 3. The surface is the same on the vast territory of Russia. 4. Russia has abundant natural resources. 5. More than 150 million people live in Russia.

Grammar exercises

Exercise 1.Write a or an.

1..... oldbook

.…window

.…horse

.…airport

.…newairport

.…organisation

.…university

.…hour

.…economicproblem

Exercise 2.What are these things? Choose from the list., flower, river, tool, fruit, game, mountain, planet, musical instrument vegetable.

. A duck is ... .

. A carrot is ….

. Tennis is ….

. A hammer is….

. Everest is… .

. Jupiter is… .

. A pear is … .

. The Amazon is … .

. A rose is … .

. A trumpet is… .3.Write a or an.

. ... officer, 2. .... young officer, 3. .... year, 4. .... incident, 5. ... funny incident 6. ... artist, 7. ... great artist, 8. .... hour, 9. .... happy hour, 10. .... event, 11. .... great event, 12. .... engineer, 13. ...plane, 14. ... airport, 15 .... new airport, 16 .... idea, 17 …bright idea, 18 ....opera, 19. ... famous opera, 20. …elephant, 21. …baby elephant, 22. ...angel, 23. ... kind angel, 24. …auto, 25 .... fast auto, 26 .... ass, 27 .... stubborn ass, 28. university, 29 .... open university, 30 .... ant.4. Complete the sentences as in the example.: ... has to be patient, friendly and flexible. - A teacher has to be patient, friendly and flexible.. ... has to be reliable, efficient and well-organized.

. .... has to be creative, intelligent and experienced in life.

. .... has to be beautiful, tall and hard-working.

. ...has to be kind, competent and professional.

. …has to be polite, creative and friendly.

. ... has to have a good reputation and talent for speaking in public.

. …must have a good memory and a quick mind.

. …must be sweet, elegant and have good manners.

. …must be hard-working, studying for knowledge, enjoy his life.

. ... must be careful, brave and clever.lady, a writer, a politician, a secretary, a student, a model, an interpreter, a hairdresser, a doctor, a detective5. Complete the sentences. Choose from the list.vegetarian, an architect, a manager, an accountant, a mirror, a dictionary, a busker, a burglar, a customer, a friend.

.... is someone who designs buildings.

..... is someone who breaks into houses and steals things.

..... is someone who doesn't eat meat.

..... is someone who sings in the streets and gets money for it.

..... is a person who buys things in a shop.

.…is a person who controls business of a company.

....is a book which gives you a reliable language information.

..... is a surface which reflects images.

.... is a person who keeps and counts business money.

.... is someone who understands you and someone you can rely on.6. Write a or an if necessary and translate the sentences into Russian.

. What about having ... snack?

. We all had … jolly good laugh.

. I asked Sue when we could meet for ... chat.

. Would you like to have … dinner with me?

. Take ... seat. We are going to have ... long talk.

. Have you ever had ... lunch at this restaurant?

. We'll have to make ... fire to get warm.

. Did you have ... good time at the graduation party?

. Steve goes out every hour to have …smoke.

. The secretary would like to make …appointment for Thursday.

. Linda has …splitting headache today.

. Every morning before breakfast he has …swim.

. Just have … look at that funny boy over there.

. He called a lawyer as he wished to make …will.

. Are you going to make …speech at the ceremony?

. Whether you want it or not, I am going to give you … piece of my mind.

. There are people who are always ready to give you …hand when you are in trouble.

. The sponsor offers them to give …support with advice and money.

. Any woman would make ... fuss in such a situation.

. - Would you like to have … rest after dinner? - Just for half an hour.7. Write a or an if necessary.

. There is …new shopping centre in the city.

. There were ... files in the boxes.

. There was …lift in the house.

. There is ... marmalade in the jar.

. There is ... island in the ocean.

. There was …anger in her voice.

. There were … tears in her eyes.

. There was ... fantastic dress in the window-shop.

. There are … nice little cottages in the village.

. There is …money in the purse, but not much.8. Write a or an if necessary.

. Arthur lived … interesting life.

. She was …non-stop talker.

. It was …quick and clever decision.

. - Are they …colleagues or …friends? - They are …neighbours.

. Are you …optimist or …pessimist?

. It is … very urgent information. Read it!

. - What is it? - It is …tomato soup. - Oh no, I hate it!

. A piano is not …furniture. Its …musical instrument.

. Pizza is …very popular dish which came from Italy.

. My cousin is …modern dress-designer.

. It's … lie again, isn't it? You always tell me …lies.

. This is …great news. I am happy about it.

. It is …brown bread, but I usually have …white bread.

. It is not …easy situation, it's … very difficult one.

. It is …good start. You are …very energetic man.9. Write a or an if necessary.

.My Granny has sent me ... present for Christmas.

.The detective got ... important information.

.He had ... dream that seemed real.

.She heard ... voice calling her.

.I am going to start ... business of my own.

.He made …good progress in his Chinese.

.My new computer makes … strange noises.

.In the morning Mary saw … young servant girl.

.Sing him ... song, tell him ... story and he will fall asleep.

.We gave ...long interview to the press.

.- Could you keep …secret? - Of course, I like ... secrets.

.We got ... great news about this film star.

.I've decided to bake ... chocolate cake.

.My parents always give me ... useful advice.

.I managed to get ... very interesting work.10. Write a or an if necessary.

. What ... strong coffee!

. What ... risky situation!

. What ... timely advice!

. What …shocking idea!

. What ... smart dresses!

. What …cold champagne!

. What …miserable day!

. What ... tough people!

. What …killing news!

. What ... great man!

. What ... heavy weather!

. What ... deep knowledge!11. Write sentences from the words in brackets ( ... ). Sentences 1-7 are present.

. (the office / clean / every day)

. (these rooms / clean / every day?)

. (glass / make / from sand)

. (stamps / sell / in a post office)

. (this room / not / use / very often)

. (we / allow / to park here?

. (how / this word / pronounce?)8-15 are past.

  1. (the office / clean / yesterday).
  2. (the house / paint / last month).

10. (three people / injure / in the accident).

. (my bicycle / steal / a few days ago).

. (when / this bridge / build?).

. (you / invite / to the party last week?).

. (how / these windows / break?).

. (1/ not / wake up / by the noise).12. Correct these sentences.

. (This house built) 100 years ago.

. Football plays in most countries of the world.

. Why did the letter send to the wrong address?

. A garage is a place where cars repair.

Where are you born?

How many languages are speaking in Switzerland?

Somebody broke into our house but nothing stolen.

When was invented the bicycle?13. Complete the sentences. Use the passive (present or past) of these verbs:, damage, find, give, invite, make, make, show, steal, take.

. The room …every day.

. I saw an accident yesterday. Two people … to hospital.

. Paper …from wood.

. There was a fire at the hotel last week. Two of the rooms ….

. 'Where did you get this picture?' 'It…to me by a friend of mine.'

. Many American programmes …on British television.

. 'Did Jim and Sue go to the wedding?' 'No. They …but they didn't go.'

. 'How old is this film?' 'It …in 1965.'

. My car …last week but the next day it …by the police.14. Change the sentences into negative and interrogative forms.

. Marmalade is made from oranges.

. This town was built a century ago.

. They were invited to a birthday party.

. The fax has just been sent.

. America was discovered long ago.

. The book is still being published.

. My neighbour's car was stolen last night.

. His winter boots were made in Germany.

. The building was ruined by the earthquake.

. Italian is spoken in Italy and on Malta.

. I am sure some way out will be found.

. When he came home, dinner was being cooked.15. Change the sentences as in the example.: A telephone call woke me up. - I was woken up by a telephone call.

. My father built this cottage.

. Beginners use that computer.

. Somebody is opening the window now.

. We sold the last French text-book.

. People all over Russia watch the news.

. The moonlight lit everything in the room.

. Don't worry, we shall settle your problems.

. We have just sent for the doctor.

. The Semenovs don't use this room very often.

. Thomas Coryate brought forks from Italy to England.

. He has just repaired his car.

. Somebody addressed the letter to the wrong person.16. Answer the questions as in the example. Choose from the list.: - Was radium discovered by Mary Poppins?

No, it wasn't. It was discovered by Marie Curie.da Vinci, Marie Curie, the ancient Egyptians, James Cameron, the ancient Greeks, Walt Disney, John Lennon. Shakespeare, Alexander Bell, Popov, Christopher Columbus, Lewis Carrol

. Was "Mona Liza" painted by Picasso?

. Was Micky Mouse created by the Warners?

. Was the song "Imagine" written by Elvis Presley?

. Was the film "Titanic" directed by Alfred Hitchcock?

. Was the Parthenon built by the ancient Romans?

. Was the telephone invented by Siemens?

. Was America discovered by Marco Polo?

. Was "The Moonlight Sonata" composed by Tchaikovsky?

. Were the Pyramids built in China?

. Was "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" written by Shakespeare?XIIGLOBAL PROBLEMS.Read and give a summary of the text.problemsrecent years the world has witnessed considerable economic development. But the process of generating wealth and prosperity has been very uneven, to such a degree, that economic imbalances are now seen to aggravate the social problems and political instability almost in every region of the Globe., all contemporary global problems find their roots in the consequences of rapid scientific and technological progress. However, despite all our constant efforts and attempts to solve these problems, the best we have now are just modest results. Mankind seems to stand, as it were, at some civilization crossroad.tangle of the most pressing problems keeps on growing like a snowball. Humanity today faces many challenges:

Violent conflicts within and among various nations.

Population growth.

Organized crimes and drugs.

New epidemic diseases.

Global warming.

Environmental pollution and ecological decay.

Poverty of the masses, especially in the so-called Third World which constitutes about 2/3 of the Earth population.

Threat of the global nuclear war.

Terrorism and possible demographic disaster.these "end-products" of the current age of the industrialization and militarism are taking the world to the global catastrophe. Today's civilization state may be featured as "a disease" that, if it keeps on progressing, will lead us to self-destruction.2. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) политическая нестабильность; 2) быть свидетелем быстрого экономического развития; 3) расти как снежный ком; 4) усугубить социальные проблемы; 5) попытки и усилия решить неотложные проблемы; 6) последствия научно-технического прогресса; 7) рост населения; 8) организованная преступность; 9) бедность народных масс в странах третьего мира; 10) столкнуться с вызовом; II) век индустриализации/глобализации; 12) глобальное потепление; 13) экологический кризис; 14) угроза ядерной войны; 15) загрязнение окружающей среды; 16) распространение наркотиков; 17) привести к глобальной катастрофе и саморазрушению; 18) демографическое бедствие; 19) вооружение/разоружение; 20) составлять большинство населения планеты.

Exercise 3. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:

. In recent years mankind has made great success in the economic development.

. However, there appeared many serious global problems.

. These problems are supposed to be caused by the rapid scientific and technological progress.

. Today humanity is facing several challenges.

. The worst of them are poverty of masses, hunger, diseases, crimes, drugs and terrorism.

. Of course, there are some other urgent problems.

. All of them are taking us to the global catastrophe.

. We, people of the Globe, should join our efforts and do our best not to ruin our common home.4. Answer the questions:

. What has the world witnessed recently?

. What are the consequences of considerable economic development?

. What are the global contemporary problems connected with?

. Name the most pressing problems.

. Has mankind managed to solve them?

. Where may modern civilization lead the Earth population?

. What are the Globe nations to do to save our planet and survive?5. Translate into Russian:, conduct, provide, sphere, resident, despite, aim, seek, force, change, modern, advancement, contribute, make, outdated, behavior, retarded, main, field, in spite of, ensure, look for, progress, backward, inhabitant, goal, primary, promote.6. Read and give a summary of the text.key to solving the global problemsthe pressure of modern science and technology our world began transforming, altering many aspects of our life. All these transformations force people to become more interdependent., despite this fact, the world still remains divided into the advanced and underdeveloped or backward countries, with the gap between them ever widening.one sixth of our planet inhabitants currently enjoys high standard of living. Most people live in poverty and see no prospects for themselves.global problems will become more aggravated if the world continues to be divided by the policies carried out exclusively on the basis of their own interests.an approach is unacceptable when maintaining the social and environmental balance becomes now the most important condition for the advancement and survival of humanity.'s situation leaves us no choice, but to seek and achieve any coordination of our actions and unity of our aims. There are only two ways for regulating the social relations in a civilized manner: by morality and law.primary efforts of the Globe nations should be directed away from destroying the environment and each other, towards creating moral, just, sustainable and peaceful social and environmental relations. To achieve this goal we need to re-evaluate our world, as well as to alter our behavior and value orientations.the main human values must reflect the idea that all of us live as one large family on one small planet called the Earth. We have nowhere else to go. That's why all of us must promote a global oriented morality and implement all the international laws. In this case the human rights legislation becomes of the utmost importance.nations of the Globe, despite their traditions, beliefs and values, should give priorities to the common interests of mankind in order to ensure peace and human survival. We are to save our planet both for ourselves and for the generations to come.7. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) Преображаться под давлением чего-либо; 2) жить в бедности; 3) становиться взаимозависимыми; 4) делить мир на развитые/слаборазвитые/отсталые страны; 5) менять что-либо; 6) человеческие ценности, нравственность; 7) вынуждать к чему-то; 8) произвести переоценку ценностей; 9) высокий уровень жизни; 10) важнейшее условие; 11) жители планеты; 12) не видеть каких либо перспектив; 13) обострять многие глобальные проблемы; 14) цивилизованным образом; 15) проводить политику на основе своих интересов; 16) не уничтожать друг друга; 17) неприемлемый подход; 18) не оставлять выбора; 19) сохранить существующий баланс; 20) отражать мысль; 21) дальнейшее развитие и выживание человечества; 22) добиваться согласования действий; 23) единство целей; 24) предпочитать что-либо; 25) регулировать социальные отношения; 26) права человека; 27) посредством морали и закона; 28) направлять основные усилия на формирование мирных, стабильных отношений; 29) обеспечить стабильность; 30) соблюдать международные законы; 31) изменить поведение; 32) содействовать общим интересам; 33) становиться крайне важным; 34) сохранить планету для грядущих поколений.

Exercise 8. Translate into Russian:

. Our world began transforming due to the rapid progress of science and technology.

. These transformations led to various changes in many spheres of our life.

. They also aggravated a lot of global problems.

. The world shouldn't be divided into the well-off countries and those ones living in poverty.

. The Earth nations are to agree with each other about their actions and aims.

. They must contribute to the global oriented morals and observe all international laws.

. The advancement and survival of humanity is of the paramount importance.

. To obtain this goal the Globe inhabitants are to alter their conduct and value orientations.4. Answer the questions:

. Why did our world begin transforming?

. What were the consequences of these transformations?

. Do all inhabitants of our planet enjoy now high standard of living or not?

. Can you give any explanations to this situation?

. What approach can be acceptable for the advancement and survival of humanity?

. How should the Globe nations act to achieve this goal?

. What must their primary efforts be directed to?

. What main idea should the Earth nations understand?

. What must they promote?

. What should the Earth nations give priorities to and why?

Grammar exercises1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. - What's the weather like today? - Just fine.

. - What's the trouble? - No trouble at all.

. - What's the hurry? - There's no hurry.

. - What's the panic? - There's no panic.

. - What's. the rush? - There'sno rush.

. - What's the date? - The first of April.

. - What's the delay? - There's no delay.

. -What's he matter? - There's nothing the matter.

. - Where. is the key? - In the box.

. - Where are the kids? - In bed already.

. - Look at the sky! - But there is nothing in the sky.

. - Look at the picture! Do you see me in the picture?2. Change the sentences as in the example.: I have a new watch. - I have new watches.watch is very good. - The watches are very good.

. A child has a special love for animals.

. The child looks like his father.

. A hammock is perfect for relaxing in the garden in summer.

. The woman is an expert on computer programmes.

. A pet can have a positive effect on both your mental and physical health.

. The man is definitely trying to do his best.

. A powerful, efficient shower is a real pleasure in summer.

. The shower is out of order again.

. A provision market is held on Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturdays.

. The provision market is closed today.

. Everyone likes a good barbecue on a sunny day.

. The party was a success.

. A strict vegetarian an make a meal out of greens and vegetables.

. The vegetarian refused to have the meat course.

. The flower is so beautiful.3. Use the article if necessary.

. What's …matter? Have you lost …keys again?

. What's …date today? Where's ….calendar?

.What's …time? I've left ... watch at home.

. Describe … situation to us, will you?

. Put ...dictionary in its place.

. Are уоu going to lay ... table? - Yes, but where is ... table-cloth?

. I think we must put ... fridge in the corner.4. Complete the sentences with the right article.

. I have… family . ... family is not big, but friendly.

. This is ... wonderful car … car is my brother's.

. Jane bought ... dictionary. She paid much for ... book.

. The policeman saw …strange man near the bank. He recognized … man.

. Its ... beautiful flower. I am sure, Mary left … flower here.

. They arrived at … very old house .... house looked dark and unfriendly.

. What ... funny little dog. Is …dog yours?

. Once upon a time there lived … greedy king ... . king was not popular.

. They found … cottage in the forest. Not ... sound came from …house.

. They entered ... old-fashioned room and in …room there sat a strange figure.5. Use the article if necessary.'s mother sent him to ... shop to buy …rice, ...fish and …bread. She also told him to get …salt …sugar and …vegetables. When he got back home with... purchases, his mother was dissatisfied. Look at ... products, Ben, she said, …fish isn't fresh, ... rice is old and full of weevils and …bread is stale. There are …lumps in ... salt, ... vegetables are not fresh and ... sugar is dirty .... food is expensive and now I'll have to throw away some of ... things you've bought. Next time be more careful, Ben!6. Complete the sentences with an appropriate article.

. Who was ... first teacher you had at school?

. This is ... suit John bought in Paris.

. It was ... moment I'll never forget.

. Here is …present you have been dreaming of.

. Meet Mike. He is … man I told you about.

. The Hermitage is ... richest museum in Russia.

. Young people like to walk in …centre of Moscow.

. …whole group passed the exam successfully.

. You are …whole world to me.

. This is ... thing you must do now.

. If you take …left turn you'll get to ... right place.

. Detroit is …sixth largest city in the USA.

. My mother is ... main person in my life.7. Complete the sentences with an appropriate article.

. She has papers everywhere: on ... table, on ... floor, in ... kitchen and even in ... bathroom.

. Let's take the children to ... circus on Sunday morning.

. He was born in ... small Siberian village.

. I got into ... plane for my first flight.

. If you look at ... sky, you'll see a lot of stars.

. Shall we meet at ... library?

. She 'lay on ... sofa listening to pop music.

. She works in ... bank, in …centre of ... city.

. In summer she likes to have tea in…garden.

. Susan rents ... top half of the house.

. He lives in ... small town in Alaska.8. Comment on the use of the articles in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.

. Asia Minor is a great peninsula in Western Asia. It i's washed by the Black Sea in the north, the Mediterranean in the south, and the Aegean Sea in the west. It is occupied today by Turkey.

. If you want to visit a city within the Arctic Circle go to Murmansk, which is on the Barents Sea.

. San-Marino, which lies in the Apennine Mountains near the Adriatic Sea, in northern Italy, is Europe's oldest existing state. It has a population 6f less than 20,000 people, most of whom speak Italian.

. The Virgin Islands (the Caribbean Islands) were bought by the United States from Denmark in 1917 and are now popular tourist centres.

. Mount Ararat in the eastern Turkey is mentioned in the Bible as the place where Noah's Ark came to rest.

. The Blue Nile, and the White Nile meet in the Sudan to form the Nile.

. The Monterey Peninsula juts out into the Pacific Ocean halfway up the California coast.

. New York City is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River on the East coast of the USA. The heart of New York is the island of Manhattan.

. The Gulf Stream originates in the Gulf of Mexico, swings around Florida, mixes with the North Atlantic Drift and heads towards Europe.

. Lake Titicaca which is between Bolivia and Peru is the world's highest large lake.

. The Bermuda Triangle in the Atlantic Ocean is famous as an area where ships and aircraft disappear under mysterious circumstances.9. Complete the sentences with an appropriate article.

.... Antarctic is the home for penguins, dolphins and whales.

  1. She was sent to ... Persian Gulf as a war correspondent.
  2. .... Europe extends from ... British Isles in the west towards ... Urals in the east.
  3. The highest peak in ... North America is ... Mount McKinley.
  4. We had an unforgettable experience in ... Austrian Alps.
  5. …Iceland is a volcanic island.

7. If you want to see …Lake Victoria and ... Mount Kilimanjaro, go to … Kenya. 8. It hasn't rained for several hundred years in ... Atakama in South America.

. The hunters got lost in …Rocky Mountains.

. Many centuries ago … Vesuvius destroyed ... Pompeii.10. Comment on the use of the articles in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.

. Although Australia is the smallest continent, it is the largest island in the world. 2. Luxembourg is a small country in Europe between France, Belgium and Germany.

. The population of the Russian Federation is about 150 million people.

. The Empire State Building in Fifth Avenue is a symbol of New York.

. The Low Countries include the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. They were so named because they are flat and near sea level.

. The six island countries of the West Indies are the Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica.

. Pyongyang is the capital of North Korea. Seoul is the capital of South Korea.

. Turkey is situated on two continents, Asia and Europe. The dividing line is the Bosporus, a strait that connects the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea.

. Vatican is the Pope's Palace on the Vatican Hill in Rome. The Vatican City is the only surviving Papal state.

. Monaco is an independent country on the Mediterranean coast of France near Italy.11. Complete the sentences with an appropriate article.

. ... White Tower in London was built between 1078 and 1098.

. They always stay at ... Coral Sands Hotel when they come to ... Sidney.

. Excuse me, how can I get to ... Natural 'story Museum?

. Supreme Court is the highest tribunal in ... USA.

. Freer Gallery of Art has a rich collection of… Asian and American Art.

. Does this bus go to ... Sheremetyevo Airport? - Yes, it does.

. You can say whatever you like in ... Hyde Park.

. You can get ticket to Moscow International Festival at the kiosk next to …GUM.

. Who built ... St. Basil's Cathedral?

. Most news comes from ... BBC and …CNN.

.... Buckingham Palace, ... Trafalgar Square, ... Houses of Parliament, ... Tower of London, ... Tower Bridge, ... National Gallery are the usual sights in ... English capital.12. Use an appropriate article if necessary.. 1. Kilimanjaro 2. Jenisei 3. Bermuda 4. Elbrus 5. Hudson Bay 6. Laptev Sea 7. Urals 8. Kalahari 9. Volga 10. Carpathians 11. Indian Ocean 12. Madeira 13. Etna 14. English Channel 15. Palm Beach 16. Arctic Circle 17. Olympus 18. New Forest 19. South Pole 20. Bridge of Sighs 21. Jutland Peninsula 22. Suez Canal 23. Swallow Falls 24. Sicily 25. London Bridge 26. Kara-Kum 27. Lake Chad 28. Amur 29. Malay Archipelago 30. Aleutian Islands. 1. United Arab Emirates 2. Sudan 3. Far East 4. Brussels 5. Netherlands 6. Booker Prize 7. Hague 8. Art Theatre 9. Riviera 10. Northern Europe 11. St. James's Park 12. Peacock Inn 13. Baker Street 14. Russian Museum 15. Salisbury Cathedral 16. Wailing Wall 17. Middle East 18. Southern Africa 19. Roman Empire 20. Miami Airport 21. Nobel Prize 22. Republic of Ireland 23. Athens 24. Winter Palace 25. Republican Party 26. Eiffel Tower 27. National Association of Teachers 28. Alaska 29. Village of Sosnovka 30. Central Asia13. Use the words in brackets ( ... ) to complete the sentences.

.The washing machine was broken but it's OK now. It…(repair).

2.The washing machine …(repair) yesterday afternoon.

.A factory is a place where things …(make).

.How old are these houses? When… (they/build)?

5.A:…(the computer / use) at the moment? B: Yes, Jim is using it.

.I've never seen these flowers before. What…(they/call)?

7.Some trees …(blow) down in the storm last night.

.The bridge is closed at the moment. It. … (damage) last week …and it …(not/repair) yet.14. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

. You (advise) to wear sensible shoes in winter.

.The time before bed (spend) very pleasantly.

. Sniffer dogs (use) by police to detect drugs and explosives.

. Huge pine trees (uproot) by the storm.

. You (allow, not) to buy cigarettes if you are under sixteen.

. Toyotas (manufacture) in Japan.

. This road never (clean).

. Gold (discover) in Eastern Canada.

. When I saw him, he (chase) by a large dog.

. Several towns (destroy) by the eruption of Vesuvius.

. This coffee just (make), help yourself!

. You ever (cheat)? You ever (make a fool of)?

. The mirror (break) while it (move) into the hall.

. How the word "magazine" (pronounce)?

. The table (lay) now. You (serve) in a few minutes.

. For months, the' baby kangaroo (protect), (feed) and (teach) to survive by its mother.

. I feel that I (watch) now by somebody.

. These shirts (iron, not) yet.

. Love stories always (sell) well.

. Oranges and tangerines are very useful, besides, they (peel) perfectly.XIIICOOPERATION1. Read and give a summary of the text.Cooperationcooperation is a continuous multilateral process. Day by day it keeps on working at various levels: between different states, regions, municipalities and even individual enterprises.one of the most important means for establishing friendly and diplomatic relations, such cooperation contributes to overcoming stereotypes and better understanding. Moreover, it is the real way of integrating with the world community.basis of such cooperation is the growing interest of the Globe nations to various spheres of life in different countries. People of various races and nationalities arc eager to learn their partners' language. They are also interested in their culture and history, as well as in their scientific, economic and technological achievements. They learn to be tolerant, open-hearted and wise, thus promoting peace and further progress on the Earth.all-round international cooperation should be based on the principles of mutual benefit and subsidy. Sound investments into the social and economic development arc the key elements of international efforts to secure peace and stability. Only fruitful cooperation of the Globe nations can help many countries' economies to become more competitive.'s priorities in this field are to be given to the most significant aspects. One of them is increasing the importance of the international technological component and its weight in the entire structure of the scientific and technological cooperation. The other one is creating the most reliable market mechanisms and infrastructure of this international cooperation that will meet the world standards.present, it is of the utmost importance to use all the opportunities of various influential world organizations, e.g. the UN and others. It is necessary for forming the global system of the most extensive international technological, scientific and innovative cooperation, satisfying the geopolitical and economic interests of various nations.2. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) Непрерывный, многосторонний процесс; 2) продолжать работать; 3) вносить большой вклад; 4) преодолеть стереотипы; 5) на разных уровнях; 6) установить дипломатические, дружеские отношения; 7) для лучшего взаимопонимания, 8) реальный способ интеграции в мировое сообщество; 9) растущий интерес; 10) обеспечить прочный мир и стабильность; II) солидные инвестиции в социальную сферу; 12) всестороннее и плодотворное сотрудничество; 13) на принципах субсидирования и взаимной выгоды; 14) интересоваться историей и культурой разных народов; 15) учиться быть терпимыми, мудрыми и открытыми; 16) значение технической компоненты; 17) отвечать интересам международного сотрудничества и мировым стандартам; 18) геополитические и экономические интересы; 19) использовать любые возможности; 20) создать надежный рыночный механизм; 21) становиться высококонкурентоспособным; 22) инфраструктура международного сотрудничества; 23) способствовать делу мира и прогресса; 24) ключевой элемент; 25) влиятельные всемирные/международные организации.

Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences:

. The all-round international cooperation is a ... process.

. It goes on working at ... .

. It is the real way of ... .

. The basis of this cooperation is the growing interest of ... .

. The Globe nations must learn to be ... .

. The key elements to ensure peace and stability are ... .

. The fruitful international cooperation can help ... to become more competitive.

. It is necessary today to ... reliable market mechanisms and infrastructure of the international cooperation that will meet… .

Задание 4. Give synonyms for:

) Different expositions, 2) nowadays, 3) to contribute to something, 4) various nations, 5) to ensure possibilities, 6) on the Earth, 7) to run an exhibition, 8) to take part, 9) to subsidize a lot of expositions, 10) sphere, 11) overseas, 12) commerce, 13) multilateral, 14) technical progress.5. Read and give a summary of the text.international fairs and exhibitions arc one of the most interesting forms of international cooperation. They are held all over the world, providing practically unlimited opportunities for establishing profitable contacts, contributing to mutual understanding between the Globe nations. But, perhaps, a few of us know that everything has started with the very first exhibition.world's first exhibition was held in London in 1851. Being an event of extraordinary importance, the exhibition was a great success. It displayed the exhibits of almost 40 nations participating in it. The number of visitors exceeded 6 million.then all industrial expositions in the world have had a colorful history. They have changed not only in their size and scope but also in their character and purpose.important events provided a lot of opportunities for exchanging various scientific, technological and cultural achievements of different nations from Europe, Asia, both Americas, Australia and Africa.the early 60-s the international expositions took new forms trying to emphasize not only the technological progress of the Globe nations, but also many other aspects of their life. They became real festivals of industry and culture.country has also been the hostess to a great number of various international exhibitions that were sponsored by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of our state and numerous foreign firms and companies.first International Exhibition in Russia was held in Moscow in 1964. It was a significant event in the history of our country and it was a great success. Since then a great deal of different international exhibitions and fairs have been held in many other cities of our land.greatly contributed to our learning the overseas experience in various industries. They also gave us a chance to widen our business and commercial contacts with foreign partners, to introduce our own achievements and promote our goods to the world markets.6. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

1) Проводить различные выставки и ярмарки; 2) вносить большой вклад; 3) событие чрезвычайной важности; 4) иметь большой успех; 5) предоставить неограниченные возможности; 6) меняться по цели и масштабу; 7) устанавливать выгодные контакты; 8) обмениваться научными, техническими и культурными достижениями; 9) изучать зарубежный опыт; 10) обеспечить взаимопонимание; 11) превышать несколько миллионов; 12) представить множество экспонатов; 13) многочисленные зарубежные фирмы и компании; 14) подчеркивать различные аспекты нашей жизни; 15) принимать новые формы; 16) принимать участие в ярмарках; 17) Торгово-промышленная палата; 18) коммерческие партнеры; 19) представить свои достижения; 20) расширять научные и деловые контакты, продвигать наши товары на мировые рынки.

Exercise 7. Answer the questions:

. When and where was the world's first exhibition held?

. How many nations participated in it?

. And what about the number of visitors?

. Was the first exhibition a success or not?

. Are various expositions and fairs of any importance?

. What opportunities do they provide?

. When and where was the first international exhibition held in our country?

. Was it a success or not?

. Who sponsored different expositions held in our land?

. Have you ever visited any international exhibition or fair?

. What was your impression?

Grammar exercises

Exercise 1. Answer these questions with I don't know where/when/why ... etc.

. Have your friends gone home?

. Is Kate in her office?

. Is the castle very old?

. Will Paul be here soon?

. Was he angry because I was late?

. Has Sally lived here a long time?2. Complete the sentences.

. (How do aeroplanes fly?)

. (Where does Susan work?)

. (What did Peter say?)

. (Why did he go home early?)

. (What time does the fIlm begin?)

. (How did the accident happen?)3. Which is right?

. Do you know what time is it; / it is?

. Why are you / you are going away?

. I don't know where are they / they are going.

. Can you tell me where is the museum / the museum is?

. Where do you want / you want to go for your holidays?

. Do you know what do elephants eat / elephants eat?4.Write questions with Do you know if ... ?

. (Have they got a car?)

. (Are they married?)

. (Does Sue know Bill?)

. (Will George be here tomorrow?)

. (Did he pass his exam?)5. Write questions beginning Do you know ... ?

. (What does Ann want?)

. (Where is Paula?).

. (Is she working today?)

. (What time does she start work?)

. (Are the shops open tomorrow?).

. (Where do Sarah and Tim live?)

. (Did they go to Ann's party?)6.Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.

. Do you know why… ?

. Do you know what time …

. Excuse me, can you tell me where ….

. I don't know what ….

. Do you know if ….7.Put in say/said or tell/told.

. He …. he was tired.

. What did she…. you?

. Ann …she didn't like Peter.

. Jack …me that you were ill.

.. Please dont.... Jim what happened.

. Did Lucy …. she would be late?

. The woman …she was a reporter.

. The woman …us she was a reporter.

. They asked me a lot of questions but I …didn't them anything.

. They asked me a lot of questions but I didnt… anything.8. Change the sentences as in the example.: She says, "I have to go." - She says (that) she has to go.

. Tom says, "I am always late for classes."

. Father says, "My watch is slow."

. The detective says, "There is something strange about this person,"

. The sign says, "There is no parking here."

. Mum says, "It's time to have lunch."

. The teacher says, "Sit down, please."

. The weatherman says, "It will be icy tomorrow."

. The boy says, "I can ride a motor-bike."

. The policeman says, "Be careful, don't walk alone in the night."

. The Prime Minister says, "I promise everything will be all right soon."

. She says, "I am leaving tomorrow."

. The son says to his parents, "I've never been in the circus."

. The doctor says to his patient, "Go to bed not later than ten o'clock".9. Change the sentences as in the example: He asks, "Are you ready to go out?" ¬He asks if I am ready to go out.

. The stranger asks, "Is anybody at home?"

. They ask, "Is it cold today?"

. The teacher asks, "Do you have any questions?"

. Mario asks us, "Has Maria come?"

. The boss asks, "Do you agree with me?"

. She asks, "Is this film worth seeing?"

. The student asks, "Shall I start reading?"

. Everybody asks, "Do you have an extra ticket?"

. The waiter asks, "Would you like some cheese?"

. Sarah asks, "Do I have to say 'Yes'?"

. The policeman asks, "Has anything happened?"

. I am asked, "Were you born in spring or in autumn?"

. He asks, "Am I right or not?"

. Richard asks, "Are you going to Charles's wedding next Saturday?"

. I am often asked at the airport, "Have you got a travelling insurance?"

. She asks me, "Can you understand what he means?"

. When I come home in the evening, my parents ask me, "Did you have a good time?"

. The manager asks the clerk, "Have all the documents been signed?"10. Change the sentences as in the example: He asks, "Where has she gone?" - He asks where she has gone.

. I ask them, "Who is the director of this film?"

. They ask, "What happened last week?"

. Sam asks, "Who told you this?"

. The passer-by asks, "Where is the nearest cafe?"

. She asks, "How much does this jacket cost?"

. My students ask, "How long does it take to study English?"

. Grandpa asks, "What have they just said on the radio?"

. She asks, "Whose clothes are these?"

. Mr. Snow asks, "Who am I talking to?"

. Everybody asks, "When will the party begin?"

. They ask us, "How often does it snow in the Caucasus?"

. My daughter asks me, "Who invented the bicycle?"

. He asks, "What is on TV tonight?"

. She asks, "How much shampoo is there in the bottle?"

. My mother asks me. "What tea do you prefer?"

. We ask the tourists, "Have you been to Russia before?"11. Change the sentences as in the example.: She said, "I have to go." - She said (that) she had to go.

. Little Betty said, "I am sleepy."

. Sally said, "I don't like chocolate."

. Margaret said, "I am planning a trip to the South."

. Tom said, "I have already eaten lunch."

. Kate said, "I called my doctor."

. Mr. Ford said, "I'm going to fly to Chicago."

. The speaker said, "I will come to the meeting."

. Jane said, "I can't afford to buy a new TV-set."

. The teacher said, "Now, children, you may go home."

. Ted said, "1 have to finish my report."

. Mr. Durrell said, "1 must talk to the director."

. Alison said, "1 should call my parents."12. Change the sentences as in the example.: I need to talk to you. ~ Mother told me that she needed to talk to me.

. 1 will call you tomorrow.

. 1 know your parents.

.I have met your friends.

. I'm getting hungry.

. I'm not married.

. 1 like your watch.

. 1 won't be in class tomorrow.

. I can't read your handwriting.

. I don't like fish.

. I walked to school this morning.

. I have to take one more exam.

. 1 think you speak English very well.

. You should think about it.

. I'll meet you after class for a cup of coffee.

. I'm going to take a vacation in Hawaii.

. Your pronunciation is very good.

. I've already bought this disc.

. I may be absent from class tomorrow.13. Change the sentences as in the example.: Olga said to me, "Are you free?" ~ Olga asked me if I was free.

. Do you know any foreign language?

. Are you shocked?

. Can you send this fax?

. Did you enjoy the book?

. Are you going to join us?

. Will you be at home tonight?

. Have you ever been to the North Pole?

. Can you hear me?

. Are you listening to me?

. Do you need my help?

. Did you finish your letter yesterday?

. Is it going to rain?

. Do you know how to knit?

. Do you know if she is in Moscow?14. Change the sentences as in the example.: Helen said, "Where do you live?" ~ Helen asked where I lived.

. Where is your apartment?

. What do you need?

. Do you need a dictionary?

. Why are you so sad today?

. Where do you 'live?

. How often do you go downtown?

. Where do you buy your clothes?

. Who do you usually discuss your problems with?

. Is that okay?

. When and where did you first meet?

. Where do you study?

. What did you do after class yesterday?

. Where is your car?

. Why aren't you listening to me?

. What are you thinking about?

. Where is my bag?

. What time do you usually get up?15. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Когда Павел сел в автобус, он вспомнил, что оставил дома свой проездной билет.

. Вчера я спросил своего сынишку, где его велосипед. Я был потрясен, когда он сообщил мне, что продал его своему приятелю.

. Когда Петр получил обратно свою работу, то он пожалел, что не занимался лучше.

. Я попросил друга поторопиться, так как я боялся, что мы опоздаем на (пропустим) автобус.

. Когда лодка перевернулась, я был счастлив, что мой друг умел плавать.

. Когда Нина упала, то она была уверена, что сломала палец.

. Когда я спросил Юлию, хочет ли она пойти на вечер, она ответила, что не может, так как должна присмотреть за сестренкой.

Список литературы

1. Агабекян И.П. Английский язык для бакалавров. - Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2012. - 379 с.

2. Английская грамматика: теория и практика / В.М. Венявская. - Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2009. - 319 с.

. Английский язык для вузов: учебное пособие / А.С. Восковская, Т.А. Карпова. - Изд. 4-е, доп. иперераб. - Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2010. - 349 с.

. Английский язык. Страноведение - Acrossthecountriesandcontinents / В.М. Венявская. -Ростов н/Д: Феникс,2009. - 444 с.

. Барановская Т.В. Грамматика английского языка. Сборник упражнений: Учеб. пособие. Издание второе, исправленное и дополненное. - Киев: ООО "ИП Логос-М", 2008. - 384 с.

. Большой руско-английский словарь в новой редакции: 210000 слов, словосочетений, идиоматических выражений. Пословиц и поговорок / В.К. Мюллер - Изд. 2-е, стереотип. - М.: Цитадель-трейд, 2008. - 816 с.

. Вельчинская В.А. Грамматика английского языка : учеб-метод. пособие. - М.: Флинта: Наука, 2009. - 232 с.

. Выборова Г.Е., Махмурян К.С. Сборник упражнений по английской грамматике к базовому курсу "EasyEnglish" - М.: АСТ-ПРЕСС, 2000. - 176 с.

. Голицинский Ю.Б. Грамматика: Сборник упражнений.- СПб.: КАРО, 2007. - 544 с.

. Дроздова Т.Ю., Берестова А. И., Маилова В.Г. English Grammar. Reference and Practice: учебное пособие. - СПб.: Антология, 2010. - 464.

. Новый англо-русский словарь: Ок. 200000 слов и словосочетаний / В.К. Мюллер. - 12-е изд., стереотип. - М.: Рус. Яз. - Медиа, 2005. - 945 с.

Рекомендуемая литература:

основная литература:

. Английский для психологов и социологов / Е.Н. Донченко. - Изд. 2-е. - Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2006. - 512 с.

. Английский язык для социологов: учебник для бакалавров / Ю.Б. Кузьменкова, Ф.Р. Жаворонкова. - М.: Издательство Юрайт, 2012. - 333 с.

. Бонк Н.А., Левина И.И., Бонк И.А. Английский шаг за шагом: Курс для начинающих. В 2 т. Т. 1,2. - М.: ЗАО "Росмэн-Пресс". - 2006.

. Бонк Н.А., Котий Г.А., Лукьянова Н.А.Учебник английского языка. В 2 ч.- Иваново: Фирма "Фора",2006.-640с.

. Данилова Г.А. Английский язык для психологов: Учебное пособие.- Изд-во: Восток-Запад, 2007 - 128 с.

. Коваленко П.И. Английский язык для психологов: Учебное пособие - Изд-во: Высшее образование, 2004 - 352 с.

. Лурия А.Р. Язык и сознание. - М.: Изд-во МГУ им. М.В.Ломоносова, 1979 - 320 с.

. Макарова Е.А. Английский язык для психологов: Учебное пособие. - Изд-во: Феникс, 2005 - 350 с.

. Практический курс английского языка:1 курс: Учеб. для студ.пед. вузов/ Под ред. В.Д. Аракина. - 5-е изд., испр.- М.: Гуманит. Изд. Центр ВЛАДОС, 2007. - 544 с.

дополнительная литература:

. Английская грамматика в таблицах / Е.В. Угарова. - 2-е изд.- М.6 Айрис-пресс, 2007. - 128 с.: ил. - (Английский клуб).

. Английский язык. Страноведение - Acrossthecountriesandcontinents / В.М. Венявская. - Ростов н/Д: изд-во "Феникс", 2009. - 444 с.

. Арбекова Т.И., Власова Н.Н., Макарова П.А. Я хочу и буду знать английский. Телер, 2006 г. 502 с.

. Большой руско-английский словарь в новой редакции: 210000 слов, словосочетений, идиоматических выражений. Пословиц и поговорок / В.К. Мюллер - Изд. 2-е, стереотип. - М.: Цитадель-трейд, 2008. - 816 с.

. Войтенок В., Войтенко А. Разговорный английский. - М., 2007.

. Голицинский Ю.Б. SpokenEnglish: Пособие по разговорной речи. - СПб.: КАРО, 2008. - 416 с.

. Добрый день, Британия!: учеб. пособие по страноведению / Л.С. Барановский, Д.Д. Козикис. - Выш. шк., 2006. - 271 с.

. Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка. - М., 2007.

. Николенко Т.Г. Тесты по грамматике английского языка.- М: Рольф, Айрис-пресс, 2006, - 160 с.

. Новый англо-русский словарь: Ок. 200000 слов и словосочетаний / В.К. Мюллер. - 12-е изд., стереотип. - М.: Рус. Яз. - Медиа, 2005. - 945с.

. Числова А.С. Английский язык для гуманитарных факультетов. Серия "Высшее образование". - Ростов н/Д: изд-во "Феникс", 2005. - 288 с.

12. Christine Johnson. Business English. Longman, 2006.

. David McDowall. An illustrated history of Britain. - Longman, 2007. - 188 с.

. Murphy R. Grammar in Use: a self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students. Cambridge, 2006.

. NationalGeographicmagazine.

. Richard Acklam, AramintaCrace. Total English. Longman, 2007.

. Sue Kay & Vaughan Jones. New inside out. Macmillan, 2009.

Интернет-ресурсы:

1. #"justify">. #"justify">. #"justify">. #"justify">5. #"justify">. #"justify">. #"justify">. #"justify">. #"justify">. http://orlapubs.org/ORLAPTJBS-L/L81.html электронные учебные материалы по отдельным вопросам грамматики и страноведения.

Похожие работы

 

Не нашел материала для курсовой или диплома?
Пишем качественные работы
Без плагиата!