эссе в форме рассуждения. (Объем - 150 слов, время выполнения - 80 мин.) Определяет умение студента развернуто излагать свои мысли по предложенной теме на английском языке.
. План-график выполнения самостоятельной работы студента
РазделНеделя семестраСамостоятельная работа студентов и трудоёмкость (в часах)Срок сдачи (неделя семестра)Сроки консультацийФормы текущего контроля1 семестрUnit 3 Mass media2-8487-я неделяИндивидуальное собеседование, тестирование, эссеИтого за 1 семестр4зачет2 семестрUnit 4 The Press1-41454-я неделяТестирование, устный опросUnit 5 Informal and Formal Education5-81898-я неделяУстное высказывание по предложенной теме, тестированиеUnit 6 Human culture.10-14181514-янеделяИндивидуальное собеседование, тестированиеИтого за 2 семестр50Зачет3 семестр Unit 7 Science and Scientists1-51254-я неделяУстное высказывание по предложенной теме, тестированиеUnit 8 Religions all Over the World6-11161110-я неделяИндивидуальное собеседование, тестирование, устный опросUnit 9 Progressive organizations and movements12-16241615-я неделяТестирование, устный опрос, эссеИтого за 2 семестр42Зачет4 семестрUnit10 Greenpeace1-41643-я неделяИндивидуальное собеседование, тестированиеUnit 11 Russia. Moscow.5-91698-я неделяТестирование, устный опрос, эссеUnit 12 The Global Problems10-13181312-я неделяУстное высказывание по предложенной темеUnit 13 International Cooperation 14-17181716-я неделяТестирование, устный опрос, эссеИтого за 4 семестр68Зачет с оценкойИтого164
4. Задания для самостоятельной работы студента
1OF THE GLOBE1.Translate the following words into Russian., unknown, first, poor, common, useless, variant, simple, different, new, most known, leave, last, useful, long ago, foreign, finish, complex, nowadays, standard, native, similar, unofficial, far, various, old, official, close, rich, enter.2.Give Russian equivalents for these words and word combinations.
) In the world, 2) various nations, 3) a lot of, 4) lexicon, 5) versatile, 6) most essential, 7) widely distributed, 8) at present, 9) for one's own use, 10) to comprise, 11) mother tongue, 12) further development, 13) great quantity, 14) major, 15) to occupy.3.Read and give a summary of the text.of the GlobeImany languages do the Globe people speak today? This is not the question with a simple answer. The figures differ.we turn to the UN statistics, the Earth nations speak now more than 5 000 various languages, some of them being spoken by millions or billions of people, others - only by hundreds. Inside this great number of languages 13 ones are distinguished as the Great Languages according to the total number of speakers.1,5 billion people speak now Chinese, that belongs to the Chinese-Tibet language group. It is the official language of China. But it is also spoken in Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore and some other states. There are 7 main dialects of Chinese today. They differ from each other in phonetics, vocabulary and grammar.1 billion people in more than 50 countries of the world speak English as their mother tongue and second official or foreign language. English belongs to the German language group. Today it is one of the world's most important and universal languages.of the richest, most expressive and widespread languages in the world is Russian belonging to the East-Slavic languages. About400 million people in different countries know and speak this language now.the official language of the Russian Federation, Russian also plays a very important role as a means of intercourse of the CIS (the Commonwealth of Independent States) nations. Many people from the East Europe countries know and speak Russian, to say nothing of all the Russian emigrants, who left our land and brought the Russian language to such states as: France, Germany, Norway, Finland, Mongolia, Israel, Afganistan, the USA, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Italy, several states of Africa and many other countries.ratio of the rest Great languages is as follows (in millions): Hindi and Urdu - 350, Spanish - 340, Indonesian - 210, Arabian - 200, Bengali - 180, Portuguese - 150, Japanese - 120, German - 100, French - 95 and Italian - 75.IIto the language groups, the situation is this: Spanish is one of the Romanic languages. It occupies the first place in the geographical distribution. It is the official language of Spain. But it is also spoken on the Philippines, in Cuba, several states of Latin America and Africa.of India speak more than 800 different languages which belong to the Indo-European language group. The total number of speakers exceeds 1 billion.is one of the Semite languages. And it is also one of the most widespread languages on the Globe today. Arabian is spoken in more than 25 states: Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Laos, Libya, Sudan, Tunis, Yemen and many others.belongs to the Romanic language group. It is spoken in Portugal, Brazil, several states of Asia and Africa.and Italian belong to the Romanic language group. The first one is the official language in France and the second official one in Canada. It is also spoken in Belgium, several states of Africa and Asia. The second one is the official language of Italy. And it is also spoken by many people in some other countries., that belongs to the German language group, is spoken in Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium and some other states.belongs to the Malayan-Polynesian language group that includes over 800 languages. It is now spoken on the Philippines, in Taiwan, Indonesia, Madagascar and some other countries.belongs to the Asian language group. It is the official language of Japan. But it is also spoken by many people in some other countries: the Philippines, Taiwan, Indo-China and Madagascar.more languages are rather close to the Great Languages group. These are Korean and Turkish. The first one is spoken by more than 70 million people and the second one - by 60 million people.into consideration the distribution rate of several languages, including both the total number of speakers and the states using these languages, the UN chose six languages as its official and working ones. They include Chinese, English, Russian, Spanish, Arabian and French. English holds a special place among them.it is necessary for the people of good will all over the world to know several or at least one foreign language. It is important not only for their personal use or benefit, but also for better understanding between various nations. Il is also necessary for learning more about each other's history and culture, their scientific, economic and technical achievements, as well as for establishing lasting friendly relations and thus for peace and further progress on the Earth.
Exercise 4. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations
1) Население земного шара/земли; 2) говорить на разных языках; 3) знатьнесколько иностранных языков; 4) выделять "великие" языки; 5) носитель языка; 6) самый важный/ распространенный язык на земле 7) занимать первое место; 8) очень выразительный и богатый язык; 9) играть важную роль; 10) средство общения; 11) не говоря о; 12) по географической распространенности; 13) принадлежать к группе славянских/романских/индоевропейских языков; 14) для личной пользы/выгоды; 15) страны СНГ; 16) люди доброй воли во всем мире; 17) для лучшего взаимопонимания/для мира на земле; 18) необходимо изучать и знать иностранные языки; 19) принимать во внимание; 20) технические/научные/культурные достижения; 21) установить дружественные отношения.
Exercise 5. Translate into Russian.you know?
. Today every sixth person on the Globe speaks English.
. English has the largest vocabulary: 500 000 words and 300 000 technical terms. It is a very flexible language:
. The same word can function in different parts of speech.
. Prepositions are very flexible.
. The vocabulary openness: a lot of words come from many other languages.
. Compounds and derivatives are easily created.
. The oldest written language on the Globe is Egyptian. It is 5000 years old.
. India is the sub-continent which has the largest number of languages - over 800.
. The largest number of letters in its alphabet has Cambodian - 72 letters.
. The largest world encyclopedia is printed in Spanish.
. Latin is one of the ancient languages that belongs to the Italic language group. In XVIII-XIX centuries it was the language of science, commerce, medicine, diplomacy, etc. It has played an important role in the development of many European languages. The Latin vocabulary is one of the richest sources of creating many international words, especially scientific terms.
. Esperanto has no irregular verbs. It is an artificial language that was invented in 1887 on the basis of the international vocabulary.
Exercise 6. Translate into English.
. Почти половина человечества говорит на 5 языках: китайском, английском, хинди, русском и испанском.
. Самый сложный в мире язык - китайский (более 20 миллионов иероглифов).
. Русский язык считается очень сложным для иностранцев.
. К трудным языкам также относятся: арабский язык (44 падежа) и язык североамериканских индейцев (70 приставок).
. Самый легкий язык - гавайский (6 согласных букв и 5 гласных букв).
. Согласно исследованиям британских ученых, самым вежливым языком признан язык эскимосов из Гренландии. В нем нет ни одного ругательного или обидного слова.
. По статистике ООН на изучение своего родного языка больше всех тратят англичане - около 8 лет.
Exercise 7. Answer the questions.
. How many languages do people of the Globe speak today?
. And what about the number of the Great languages?
. Why are these languages called the Great ones?
. What languages does this group comprise?
. What language holds the first place in this group?
. And what can you say about English and Russian?
. What are the UN's official and working languages? Why?
. Is it important nowadays to know any foreign language or not?
. Why do you think so? Give your arguments.
Grammar exercises1.Replace with the pronouns:
My father is a teacher. My mother is a teacher.
He is a teacher. She is a teacher.
My parents are teachers.are teachers.
. Your sister is a journalist. 2. His brother is a driver. 3. His mother and father are doctors. 4. Her grandfather is a scientist5.Their grandparents are pensioners. 6. My mother is a dentist. 7. Our parents are artists. 8. Your cousin is a student. 9. Her grandmother is a pensioner. 10. Your brother is a manager.
Exercise 2.Open the brackets:
I (to be) a student. He (to be) a student.am a student. He is a student.(to be) students. You (to be) students.are students. You are students.
She (to be) a student.is a student.(to be) students.are students.
. I (to be) a pupil. 2. He (to be) a worker. 3. He (to be) an employee. 4. They (to be) teachers. 5. We (to be) journalists.6. You (to be) fitters. 7. They (to be) engineers. 8. She (to be) an actress. 9. I (to be) a doctor. 10. We (to be) scientists.
Exercise 3.Transform into the plural:
He is a student. She is a student. I am studentare students. They are students. We are students
1. I am a pupil. 2. She is a manager. 3. He is a businessman. 4. He is a fitter. 5. She is a physicist. 6. I am a musician. 7. She is an actress. 8. I am an artist. 9. He is a carpenter. 10. She is a teacher.
Exercise 4. Transform into the plural:
This is a book. That is a book.are books. Those are books.
1. This is a notebook. 2. This is a clip. 3. That is a pen. 4. This is an article. 5. That is a ruler. 6. This is a composition. 7. That is a pin. 8. This is a journal. 9. That is a disc. 10. This is a cassette.
Exercise 5.Write short forms (she's/we're, etc.).
1. heishe's 3. she is not 5. I am not
2. they are 4. it is not 6. you are not
Exercise 6. Write the full forms (she is/we are, etc.).
1. we aren't we are not 3. you're5. it isn't
2. I'm4. they aren't6. she's
Exercise 7. Put in am, is or are.
1. The sky is very blue today. 2. Inot tired. 3. This shelfvery heavy.4. These shelvesvery heavy. 5. The childasleep. 6. Look! This_____Ann. 7. I____cold. Can you shut the window, please? 8. The castle______one thousand years old. 9. My brother and I_______ good tennis players. 10. Amy____at home but her parents________in church. 11. Ia student. 12. My sisteran archeologist.
Exercise 8.Write full sentences. Use am/is/are each time.
1. (my grandparents very old) My grandparents are very old.
2. (my desk very comfortable)
3. (your spectacles in your bag)
4. (I not very clever today)
5. (this house very expensive)
6. (the shops not open today)
7. (Mr Wren's grandson six years old)
. (the houses in this street very big)
. (the examination not difficult)
10. (those flowers very beautiful)
Exercise 9. Write positive or negative sentences. Use am/am not/is/isn't/are/aren't.
. (Brussels...the capital of Belgium) Brussels is the capital of Belgium.
2. (I...interested in hockey) / am not interested in hockey.
4. (It…cold today)
. (The Hague...in Switzerland)
. (I...afraid of dogs)
. (My hands...dirty)
8. (Russia...a very big country)
9. (The Amur...in Europe)
11. (Motor-racing...a dangerous sport)
12. (Squirrels...big animals)
Exercise 10. Write questions with What/Who/How/Where/Why…?Use am/is/are.
1. (What colour your house? What colour is vour house?
2. (Where my key?)_________________________________?
3. (Where my trousers?)_____________________________________?
. (How old your grandmother?)_______________________________?
5. (What colour his hair?)__________________________________?
6. (How much these shoes?)______________________________________?
. (Who your favourite actor?)________________________________?
8. (Why you always late?)_______________________________________?
Exercise 11. Ask questions. (Read the answers to the questions first.)
1. (his name?) What's his name? Robert.
. (single or married?) Are you single or married? I'm single.
. (British?)No, I'm not.
. (where / from?)From Australia.
. (how old?)I'm 18.
. (a student?)No, I'm a secretary.
. (your mother a teacher?)No, she's a lawyer.
. (where / from?)She's Italian.
. (her name?)Rachel.
. (how old?)She's 40.
Exercise 12.Write positive and negative short answers (Yes, I am./No, he isn't, etc.)
1. Are you married? No, I'm not.6. Is it light now?_________
. Is she tall? 7. Are your hands warm?______
3. Is it cold today? 8. Are you thirsty?_____________
4. Are you an engineer? 9. Is your father tall?____________
5. Are you hungry?______________ 10. Is it sunny?__________________
Exercise 13. Translate intoEnglish.
1. Твой брат дома? 2. Сколько стоят эти открытки? 3. Эта гостиница очень дорогая. 4. Я интересуюсь искусством. 5. Все магазины сегодня открыты. 6. Музей сегодня открыт? Мне жарко. 8. Моя сестра архитектор, 9. Я не устала. 10. Откуда родом ее муж? 11. Они не студенты, они врачи. 12. Тебе интересны иностранные языки?14. Translate into English.
- Я не ученик. Я студент.
- Его брат ученик. Он в школе.
- Мои родители инженеры. Они на работе.
- Вы доктор? - Нет, я учитель.
- Твоя сестра ученица? - Нет, она инженер. Она на работе.
- Ее сестра не секретарь. Она учитель.
- Это врачи? - Нет, они летчики.
- Ваша сестра дома? - Нет, она на работе.
- Наш отец ученый.
10. Его тетя не доктор. Она актриса.
. Это моя книга. Она на столе.
.Мой двоюродный брат не ученый, он инженер.
. Это картины. Они на стене. Картины очень красивые.
. Моя бабушка пенсионерка. Она не на роботе. Она дома.
. Ваши дети школьники? - Да, они школьники.
Exercise 15. Put in am, is or are.
1. What ... your name? - My name ... Shirley Frank. 2. What ... your address? - My address ... 175 Grand Central Parkway. 3. What ... your phone number? - My phone number ... 718-1930. 4. Where ... you from? - I ... from New York. 5. I ... a pupil. 6. My father ... not a teacher, he ... a scientist. 7. ... your aunt a doctor? - Yes, she ... . 8. ... they at home? - No, they ... not at home, they ... at work. 9. My brother ... a worker. He ... at work. 10. ... you an engineer? - Yes, I ... . 11. ... your sister a typist? - No, she ... not a typist, she ... a student. 12. ... your brother at school? - Yes, he ... . 13. ... your sister at school? - No, she ... not at school. 14. My sister ... at home. 15. ... this your watch? - Yes, it ... . 16. She ... an actress. 17. This ... my bag. 18. My uncle ... an office worker. 19. He ... at work. 20.Helen ... a painter. She has some fine pictures. They ... on the walls. She has much paper. It ... on the shelf. The shelf ... brown. It... on the wall. Helen has a brother. He ... a student. He has a family. His wife ... not from St Petersburg, she ... from Moscow.16. Translate into English.
. Как тебя зовут? - Меня зовут Аня. 2. Какой твой адрес? - Мой адрес: Оксфорд Стрит, 45. 3. Откуда ты родом? (... приехала?) - Я из Лондона. 4. Кто он (на фотографии)? - Это мой отец. 5. Как его зовут? - Его зовут Джон. 6. Где он? - Он в Лондоне. 7. Я Лена, а это Коля. Он мойбрат. Ему 10 лет, а мне 12 лет. Мы из Петербурга. 8. Я ученик. Я в школе. 9. Мой брат - художник. Он не инженер. 10. Моя сестра на работе. Она врач. 11. Он студент. 12. Вы студент? - Нет, я врач. 13. Моя сестра дома. 14. Мы не в школе. Мы дома. 15. Мой брат - ученик. Он в школе. 16. Ваша мама дома? - Нет, она на работе. 17. Ваш двоюродный брат дома? - Нет, он в школе. Он ученик. 18. Ваша сестра - учительница? - Нет, она студентка. 19. Твой папа на работе? - Нет, он дома. 20. Твоя сестра - машинистка? - Да. - Она дома? - Нет, она на работе. 21. Мой дедушка - ученый. 22. Моя мама - не учительница. Она врач. Она очень хороший врач.
Exercise 17. Translate into English.
. Меня зовут Катя. 2. Мне 14 лет. 3. Я русская. Я из Санкт-Петербурга. 4. Я ученица. 5. Мой любимый вид спорта - теннис. 6. Я интересуюсь музыкой. 7. Мой любимый предмет - английский язык. 8. Мой папа - программист. Он не интересуется политикой. 9. Моя мама - зубной врач. Она интересуется искусством. 10. Мы всегда заняты, но мы очень счастливы быть вместе. 11. Чья это ручка? - Это моя ручка. 12. Чья это книга? - Это ваша книга. 13. Чей это стол? - Это стол моего брата. 14. Чья это сумка? - Это сумка моей мамы. 15. Чей это карандаш? - Это карандаш моей сестры. 16. Это твоя тетрадь? - Да. 17. Это тетрадь твоего брата? - Нет, это моя тетрадь. 18. Где ваш стол? - Он посередине комнаты. 19. Где твоя ручка? - Она в моем кармане. 20. Где твоя тетрадь? - Она на столе. 21. Где твоя мама? - Она на работе. 22. Где твой брат? - Он в школе. 23.Где твоя сестра? - Она дома. 24. Чей это карандаш? - Это мой карандаш. - А где мой карандаш? - Он на столе. 25.Чьи это часы? - Это мои часы. - А где мои часы? - Они на столе.
Exercise 18. Put in am, is or are.
. Where ... you? - I ... in the kitchen. 2. Where ... Fred? - He ... in the garage. 3. Where ... Lisa and John? - They … at college. 4. ... you busy? - No, I ... not. Mike ... busy. He ... the busiest person I've ever met. 5. It ... ten o'clock. She ... late again. 6. How ... you? - I ... not very well today. - I ... sorry to hear that. 7. We ... interested in classical music. 8. Vera ... afraid of snakes. 9. My grandmother ... not nervous and she ... rarely upset. She ... the kindest person I've ever seen. My grandmother ... really wonderful. 10. I ... sorry. They ... not at the office at the moment. 11.Where ... the keys? - In your jacket. 12.What ... the time, please? - Two o'clock. 13.It ... the biggest meal I've ever had. 14.Which sport do you think ... the most dangerous? 15.Chess and aerobics ... not as exciting as skydiving and figure skating. 16.Debt ... the worst kind of poverty. 17.The game ... not worth the candle. 18.Do you have any idea where he ...?19. Used cars ... cheaper but less reliable than new cars.20. What ... the weather forecast for tomorrow? 21. Art ... long, life ... short. 22. You ... the best friend I've ever had.19. Express requests using the models:. Model: Ask (tell) John to shut the door, - John, shut the door, please.
. Ask Bob to give you a call after five. 2. Ask Mary to buy a birthday present. 3. Tell Nelly to take the book to the library. 4. Tell Olga to lay the table for three. 5. Tell the secretary to type these papers today. 6. Ask Peter to buy some bread on his way home.
B. Model: Ask (tell) John not to shut the door. - John, don't shut the door, please.
1. Ask Nick not to speak so loudly. 2. Ask your mother not to get up early tomorrow, 3. Tell Ann not to read at lunch. 4. Tell Kate not to send him a telegram. 5. Tell Susie not to come home so late. 6. Ask Janet not to waste money on sweets.20. Make the following imperative sentences negative:
. Give this letter to your boss. 2, Invite your boyfriend to the party. 3. Read the text aloud. 4. Smile when you are talking to me. 5. Take her to your parents' place.; 6. Wait for him for an hour. 7. See this film, 8. Take a taxi, 9, Get up! 10. Forget about it.21. Express polite requests instead of commands: Model: Come here! - Will (would) you come here, please?
. Make me a call at three! 2. Go shopping after classes! 3. Meet me at the station! 4. Wash up the dishes! 5. Speak to your teacher at school! 6. Turn on the light! 7. Explain it to me! 8. Stay at home on Saturday! 9. Tell me the truth! 10. Move out of the way! 11. Remember to post the letter! 12. Go to bed at once!22. Read the following:to be fit't stay in bed in the morning too long.'t forget to do morning exercises,'t eat your breakfast.'t be late for classes.'t take lunch to school.'t eat sandwiches in class.'t sit in one place during the breaks.'t drink too much water and other drinks.'t say you are hungry when you are.'t eat chocolates or cakes.'t take a bus when you can walk.'t go to parties where they serve good food.'t smoke or drink alcohol.'t use drugs.'t visit doctors unnecessarily.'t lie on the sofa when you watch TV or listen to music.'t go to bed during the day.23. Your mother is away on a business trip. When you come home from school you find a note with her instructions which are as follows:'t miss classes.straight home after classes.up after every meal.Monday go to the dry cleaners' to fetch our things.to the greengrocer's and buy some vegetables.your grandparents to stay with you for the weekend. I't waste money on candies and ice cream.'t bring home too many friends.'t disturb neighbours by loud music.home in the evenings, I may call.
Imagine that you are in your mother's place. What recommendations would you like to write to a teenage daughter?24. Translate into English.
1. Перестаньте разговаривать, 2. Снимай пальто и проходи в комнату. 3. Положи сахар и молоко в кофе.4. Не ешь столько мороженого. 5. Не выходи на улицу без шапки. 6. Останься посмотреть телепрограмму с нами. 7. Попроси Ника принести словарь. 8. Пригласи Их и гости. 9. Переходите улицу только на перекрестке. 10. Проводи меня домой. 11. Не ссорься с родителями. 12. Не перебивай меня. 13. Вели ей подать кофе. 14. Попроси ее перевести письмо. 15. Спроси полицейского, где почта. 16. Подумайте, прежде чем отвечать. 17. Не ешьте много на ночь. 18. Не откладывай на завтра то, что можно сделать сегодня.
Exercise 25. Write the plurals of these nouns in the columns below to show their pronunciation, glass, friend, bottle, cinema, clock, guitar, hotel, island, lake, light, month, office, park, piece, smile, space, tape, village, box, match, beach, address.
[s] [z] [iz] shops friends glasses26. Give the plural of the following nouns.
A. Toe, city, hero, piano, calf, cliff, proof, chief, stitch, bath, belief, life, shelf, berry, valley, roof, pen, window, wall, week, clock, ship, library, watch, dress, country, glass, day, part play, bus, leaf, colony, fox, half, mass, eye, language, place, key, thief, ray, bush, journey;. foot, boot, ox, fox, man, woman, month, mouse, child, ship, goose, deer, cheese, sheep;. crisis, phenomenon, datum, nucleus, basis, apparatus, criterion, series, analysis, formula;. room-mate, fellow-worker, court-martial, man-of-war, boy-messenger, onlooker, passer-b sister-in-law, postman, son-in-law, fisherman, schoolgirl, text-book, pocket-knife, statesman, editor-in-chief.
Exercise 27. Translate into English.
- Это мои друзья.
- Это газеты, а то журналы.
- Эти газеты свежие, а те газеты старые.
- Это ваши книга? - Да.
- Это не ее письма.
- Это шляпа Анны?
- Это не моя сумка.
- Это чай, а то кофе.
9.Это не мои книги. 10.Это наши учителя.
Exercise 28. Give the plural form.
this envelope this manthis report this baby
this factory this deerthis mouse this city
this hotel this game this child this leaf
this rule this bus this candle
this club this tooth this lady
Exercise 29. Give the plural form.
- This is a baby.10. This is a student.
- This is a port.11. This is a disco.
- This is a pilot.12. That is a roof.
- This is a factory.13. This is an apple.
- This is a camera.14. This is a wolf.
- This is a car.15. This is an ox.
- This is a sandwich.16. This is a woman.
- This is a piano.17. This is an orange.
- This is a half.18. That is a patch.
Exercise 30. Give the plural form.
- This is a child.9. Is that a teacher?
- This isn't a baby.10. That isn't a lamb.
- This is a sheep.11. This is a fish.
- That isn't a path.12. That isn't an atlas.
- This is a stranger.13. That is a leaf.
6. This isn't a mouse. 14. This isn't a camera.
7. Is this a man?15. This is a half.
8. That is a doctor
UNIT IIToday1. Read and give a summary of the text.is only during the last hundred years that English has become one of the world's most important languages. In Shakespeare's days English as well as Russian was "a provincial language", a language of secondary importance. People spoke mostly French, Italian, German and some other languages.English has become one of the most important and universal languages in the world. И is used in politics, economy, science, medicine, technology, business and trade, tourism and cultural relations.lot of various articles about important scientific discoveries and achievements arc published in English. Great deal of information for computers (over 80%) is written in English. It is also the major working language of most international congresses and seminars, conferences and symposiums.the total number of speakers, English holds the second place only to Chinese. It is the native language (or mother tongue) for many people from various countries. It is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, Australia and Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and some other states. It is also spoken as the second official language by many people in India, Pakistan, numerous countries of Africa, to say nothing of (he people all over the world, who know English as a foreign language.holds the first place in the world among the foreign languages taught at schools, colleges, lyceums and higher educational establishments. To know English is now necessary to get a good job in many countries. Today English is the main means for various business and social contacts with numerous foreign partners.English-speaking nations have one common language, English, but it is not the same with all of them. Languages are constantly changing and English is no exception. National features, historic and cultural changes in different countries brought changes into the language too. In some countries old English words got new meanings, while in others new terms were needed because there appeared new and un-English things.addition, a lot of new words were borrowed from other languages: Indian, Eskimo, Gaelic and others, to say nothing of such languages as: Danish, French, German, Spanish, Greek, Italian and Latin. In fact, English has become a mixture of numerous languages.there exist several variants of English on the Globe: British, American, Canadian, Australian, Irish, etc. There are numerous differences between them in intonation, pronunciation and grammatical constructions. However, the most noticeable difference is in the vocabulary.all these variants of English two ones occupy special places: the British English (as the standard literary language) and the American English (due to the USA great influence in the world).3. Find the sentences in the text:
1. подтверждающие тот факт, что английский язык является одним из самых распространенных и важных языков в мире сегодня;
. объясняющие причины изменений, происшедших в языке многих англоязычных стран;
. содержащие информацию о существовании нескольких вариантов английского языка и различиях между ними.
Exercise 4. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information.
1. People of the Globe speak today many languages.
. French and German are among the world Great languages.
. Hundred years ago English was one of the world's most important languages.
. Russian is one of the most expressive and richest languages in the world.
. According to the geographical distribution Turkish holds the first place on the Globe.
. More than 50% of the Earth population speak Italian.
. Taking into consideration the volume of printed editions, English, Russian and Spanish are the most widespread and fashionable languages on the Earth today.
. Nowadays English is the world's most important language in politics, science, commerce and cultural relations.
. The official language of Australia and Canada is English.
. All English speaking countries have one common language - English.
. Many languages have changed but English is an exception.
. The American English is considered to be the standard literary language.
. Italian, Russian, German and Spanish belong to the Romanic language group.
. Today there exist several variants of English on the Earth but there is no difference between them.
. It is essential for people of good will all over the world to know foreign languages.
Exercise 5. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations
1) официальный язык страны; 2) язык науки/политики/коммерции; 3) не исключение; 4) говорить на общем языке; 5) по географической распространенности; 6) вносить изменения в язык; 7) заимствовать новые слова из других языков; 8) многочисленные/заметные различия; 9) необходимы новые термины; 10) значение слова; 11) исторические и культурные перемены; 12) англоязычные страны; 13) изучать восточные языки; 14) необходимо знать язык для получения работы/образования; 15) рабочий/иностранный/официальный/родной язык; 16) язык конференций и семинаров; 17) не говоря о; 18) средство контактов; 19) зарубежные партнеры; 20) преподавать иностранный язык; 21) занимать первое место; 22) люди доброй воли во всем мире; 23) стандартный литературный язык; 24) получать новое значение; 25) национальные особенности; 26) кроме того; 27) постоянно меняться; 28) смесь различных языков; 29) иметь очень большое влияние в мире; 30) выдающиеся достижения/открытия.
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions.
. Was English always one of the world's most important and universal languages or not?
. What languages were popular in Shakespeare's time?
. What place does English hold now?
. How many people speak this language today?
. Can you prove that English is now one of the world's most important and universal languages?
. Where is it applied?
. What do all English speaking countries have in common?
. What variants of English are there on the Globe nowadays?
. What do these variants differ in?
. Which of the variants hold special places today and why?6. Translate into English.
"Карл V, римский император, говаривал, что испанским (языком) говорить прилично с Богом, французским - с друзьями, немецким - с неприятелем, итальянским - с женским полом.
Но если бы он русскому языку был искусен, то, конечно, он добавил бы, что им со всеми говорить пристойно, ибо он нашел бы в русском языке великолепие испанского, живость французского, нежность итальянского, крепость немецкого, а сверх того богатство греческого и краткость латинского".:- Бог; emperor - император; decently - прилично, пристойно; enemy - неприятель; to add - добавить; thefair - прекрасный пол; clever - искусный; tofind - находить; splendour - великолепие; vivacity - живость; strength - крепость; delicacy - нежность; moreover - сверх того; richness - богатство; brevity - краткость.
Grammar exercises1. Use to have or have got in the Present Indefinite Tense.
- ... you got any paper? - I am sorry. I... no paper.
- They... no French magazines.
- Miss Cabston... no family of her own.
- Mike and Jane ...a new flat.
- Miss Evance... a new coat.
- My friend ... no telephone.
- ... your children got many toys?
- ... you got any questions?
Exercise 2. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:
1. Danny has a new computer.
2. Fie has a headache.
3. This woman has a black cat.
4. I have ninety stamps.
. My parents have a big house.
. This man has fifty English books.1
7. My brother has a wife and two children.
Exercise 3. Translate into English.
1.У вас много книг по истории - Да.
2.У вашего друга есть гараж - Нет.
3.У него большая семья? - Нет. Их трое.
4.У Мэри есть дети? - Да, у нее двое детей.
5.У них есть свой сад? - Да.
6.У этого преподавателя много групп? - Да, у него 5 групп.
7.У вас есть какие-нибудь журналы? - Да.
8.У него есть виды Лондона?
9.У нас нет фермы.
10.У него нет жены.
11.У нас нет свободного времени.
12.У моей жены нет летней шляпы.
13.У них нет занятий по немецкому языку сегодня.
14.У его сестры нет детей.
15.У их сына нет велосипеда.
16.У нас нет лекций сегодня
Exercise 3. Write the short form (we've got/he hasn't got, etc.).
- we have got we've got 3. they have got5. it has got__________
- he has got 4. she has not got 6.1 have not got_______
Exercise 4. Write questions.
- (you/a bicycle?) Have you got a bicycle?
- (you/a VCR?) _____________________________________________?
- (your father/a car?)_________________________________________?
- (Carol/many friends?)___________________?
- (Mr and Mrs Lewis/any children?)___________________?
- (how much money/you?)_____________________________________?
- (what kind of car/John?)______________________________________?
Exercise 5. Put in have got ('ve got), has got ('s got), haven't got or hasn't got.
- They like flowers. They've got a lot of roses in their garden.
- Jane hasn't got a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle.
- Everybody likes Tom.. Hea lot of friends.
- Mr and Mrs Eastwoodtwo children, a boy and a girl.
- This insectsix legs.
- I can't open the door. Ia key.
- Quick! Hurry! Wemuch time.
- "What'swrong?" - "Isomething in my eye".
- Ben doesn't read much. Hemany books.
- It's a nice town. Ita very nice shopping centre.
- Mother is going to the dentist. Shea toothache.
- "Where's my newspaper?" - "I don't know. Iit."
- Julia wants to go on holiday but sheany money.
- I'm not going to work today. Ia bad cold.
Exercise 6. Extend the sentences according to the pattern.: I always have sandals in the summer, (this summer)haven't got any sandals this summer.
- They have seminars every month, (this month)
- They have a lot of flowers in their garden every summer, (this summer)
- We have a letter from home every week, (this week)
- He often has a sore throat, (today)
- I usually have warm shoes in the winter, (this winter)
- She has a new dress every summer, (this summer)
- They always have a light supper, (tonight)
- I often have a headache in the evening, (tonight)
- I often have fish for dinner, (today)
Exercise 7. Use personal pronouns
- The children are playing. Teachers are looking at....
- The table is not clean. Clean ....
- Look at this computer. ... is very expensive.
- His homework is difficult. Help....
- My students are nice. I like....
- These books are not good. I don't like....
- This car is good. I like ....
Exercise 8. Translate into English.
our photo, their phone number, her piano, his class, their music, our dentist, your mother, their wives, your computer, its screen, his father, our teacher, their sportsmen.9.Say it in English.
их друзья, наш брат, ваш номер, твой спорт, его домашняя работа, моя книга, ее фото, наши студенты, их учитель, ее отец, ваши книги, их врачи, ваша жена, твой телефон.
Exercise 10. Translate the pronouns.
- This book is (их)
- This camera is (моя).
- This passport is (ваш).
- This room is (наша).
- This vase is (ee).
- This photo is (их).
- This car is (наша).
- This bag is (твой).
Exercise 11. Translate into English.
Model: Мы в своей комнате. - We are in our room.
- Он в своей машине.6. Мы в своем доме.
- Они в своем саду (garden). 7.Ты в своем дворе(уаrd).
- Вы в своем парке (park). 8. Они в своем классе.
- Я в своей квартире (flat). 9. Мы в своем саду.
- Она в своем классе. 10. Я в своей комнате (гооm).
Exercise 12. Translate into English.
Моя книга, ее ручка, наша комната, его собака, ваш портфель, их комната, твоя машина.
Exercise 13. Use the right pronoun:. 1. Kate and (I, me) work together. 2. We spent our holiday together with (them, they). 3. My sister and (I, me) are good friends. 4. It's (he, him). 5. (She, her) writes to (he, him) every day. 6. (We, us) enjoy playing tennis. 7. Will you give (her, she) and (I, me) some help? 8. Helen and (they, them) are next-door neighbours.. 1. (My, me) aunt Susan is (my, me) mother's sister. 2. (Our, us) relatives are coming to see (our, us) today. 3. Tell (them, their) about it. 4. Is this (you, your) dog? There is something wrong with (it, its) ear. 5. Ask (him, his) if it's (him, .his) car. 6. George and Carol are having (them, their) lunch. 7. He gave (me, my) (him, his) photograph in which I couldn't recognize (him, his). 8. We were surprised to see (them, their) on the platform, they also came to meet (our, us).14. Use "me," "you," "him,""her," "it," "us," "them":
. She gave…. the book and asked to return … to... next week. 2. Are you going to invite…to your party? She is such a bore! 3. My parents are coming to see….on Saturday. I like to spend my weekend with…4. I didn't like the film. I don't want to speak about…5. We'll be very happy if you go on a trip with..... 6. Don't ask... this question. I don't know how to -answer.... 7. If she doesn't arrive tomorrow send... a telegram. 8. I'm sorry to trouble ... but I want…to do... a favour. 9. Let's not wait for… they are always late. 10. Do you want'… to do it for…? I don't mind…15. Use personal or possessive pronouns in the right form:. 1. The girls, are here, ... came early. 2. When Roger saw Ann... spoke to… .3. The boss left an hour ago. I didn't see.... 4. Sam met Ann at the entrance, showed ... the pictures. 4. The Browns have moved into a new flat. … gave … …new address, so I can visit…. 6.Jane is, sister.... is older than…am. 7. Thank... for the book ... gave ... , ... is very interesting.8.... flat is on the third floor…windows face the sea. 9.I invite... to a party at... place.... hope ... will bring ... husband with....10. … like to visit ... friends who live not far from … house. 11. Mary and … cousin are spending ...holidays in Brighton…. have both visited before. 12. Bill takes ... guitar lesson on Monday. … is the only day … is free after college. 13. I am happy that ...cat found…kitten.
В. 1. Has anyone had … coffee? 2. No one had ... watch on. 3. Has anyone left … raincoat behind? 4. Everybody took... turn. 5. Anybody can take book home. 6. Something alive just poked ….nose out of that hole. 7. Each of the girls was in... place.16. Complete the sentences using nouns in the possessive case:
. My aunt is my ... sister. 2. My cousin Jane is my …daughter. 3. My mother has a sister, her son is my… nephew. 4. My…father is my father-in-law. 5. My father has a brother, his daughter is my...niece. 6. My ... parents are my grandparents. 7. My ... children are my grand children.17. Use nouns in the possessive case.: The friends of my parents.- My parents' friends.
. The children of John Turner. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The name of this man. 5. The voice of this girl. 6. The car of my parents. 7. The room of my friend. 8. The handbags of these women. 9. The flat of my sister is large. 10. The children of my brother are at home. 11. The room of the boys is large. 12. The poems of Lermontov.18. Translate into Russian.pupils' meeting, сhildren's shoes, the friend's mother, the Browns' house, the cat's tail, the dog's eyes, dogs eyes, the manager's office, managers offices, an hour's drive, the boys' ball, the women's hats, the men's cars, teachers books, friends mother, the man's brother.19. Rewrite these sentences using 's, s', or just an apostrophe ('),
- The books for children. These are children's books,
- This bag belongs to my friend.
- He described the career of the actress.
- This is the signature of Mr Brown.
- The mistakes which students make.
- This is a club for women.
- It's a school for girls.
- The room is for the guests.
- This umbrella belongs to James.
- I liked the dinner we had yesterday at the cafe belonging to Mike.
Exercise 20. Only where possible, use 's or(') to show possession in these sentences.
- The book of this author. The author's book.
- I can't see the bottom of the box. __
- The crew of the ship was small. _
- It's the fault of no one.
- Do you like the poetry of Eliot?
- That's the leg of the table.
- Where's the key of the car?
UNIT IIIMEDIA1.Read and give a summary of the text.world today is increasingly driven by the information and entertainment values, and these are provided by various means of communication. The age of mass communication has made it possible to gain access to far more information than ever before.media have now become the major part of our lives. They are basically divided into two categories: print (magazines, newspapers, books) and electronic (radio, television and the Internet).by day they inform us of what is going on in the world. They give us wonderful possibilities for education and entertainment. They also have great effect on the way, we see the world, and shape our views.main source of news for millions of people is nowadays television. It is especially important for those who do not read any newspapers. Most of us like TV because we can not only listen to some breaking news, but also see different events with our own eyes. And it is very important: seeing believes., there are many people all over the world who prefer listening to the radio. In their opinion, it is especially good when driving a car or travelling, while doing some work about the house or in the open air.lot of people can't live a day without reading some newspapers or magazines. Of course, both newspapers and magazines don't respond to various current events as quickly as the television or radio, but they also have their own advantages. They provide us with extra details and comments and background information.Internet has recently become another important source of information. It is the newest kind of mass media, combining computers, newspapers, radio and television. Its main advantage is that fresh news can appear on the screen as soon as any things happen in the real life. And we don't have to wait for the news time on TV. In addition, all the world's main newspapers and large broadcasting companies have their own sites in the Internet. And it is very convenient because we can look through the current news any time we like.power and reach of mass media at the beginning of the new millenium arc greater than ever before. The issues raised by the media will, no doubt, continue to grow in importance in the XXI century.
Exercise 2. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations.
1) Средства массовой информации; 2) становиться важной частью жизни; 3) основной/важный источник информации; 4) электронные СМИ: радио, телевидение, интернет; 5) делить на две категории; 6) печатные СМИ: журналы, газеты, книги; 7) формировать взгляды; 8) информационная, развлекательная ценность; 9) получить доступ к различным источникам информации; 10) слушать свежие, горячие новости; 11) век массовой коммуникации; 12) иметь свой сайт в интернете; 13) иметь множество преимуществ; 14) происходить в мире; 15) оказать большое влияние; 16) не представлять себе жизни без радио и газет; 17) замечательные возможности для образования; 18) текущие события; 19) видеть все своими глазами; 20) крупные радиовещательные компании; 21) время новостей; 22) реагировать на то, что происходит в реальной жизни; 23) появляться на экране; 24) обеспечивать дополнительной/фоновой информацией; 25) дать детали, комментарий, 26) новое тысячелетие; 27) становиться более значимым; 28) поднимать в прессе разные/важные вопросы.
Exercise 3.Finish the following:
1. Mass media play an ... role in our ...
. They are divided into ... and ...
. The media ... us about various ... that ... in the world.
. For many people TV is the main ... of ... .
. They ... TV because it ...
. Some people ... radio and ...
. Various magazines and ... give us ...
. The newest kind of ... is ...
. Its main ... is that ...
. Many large ... have their own ... in the ...
. We can see different ... with our own ...
. ... educates us and ...
. Thanks to ... we can know what is ... in the world every day.
Exercise 4.Translate the questions into English and answer them.
1. Что обеспечил век массовой коммуникации?
. Какие средства массовой информации вы знаете?
.Каковы функции СМИ сегодня?
.Какие ценности начинают преобладать в мире сейчас и почему?
. Чем является ТВ для миллионов людей в настоящее время?
. А что можно сказать о радио и печатных изданиях?
. Из каких источников можно узнать "горячие" новости?
. Средства массовой информации могут предоставить возможности для образования, не так ли?
. А что вы можете сказать о развлекательных программах?
. Что из себя представляет интернет?
. Какие СМИ, на ваш взгляд, наиболее популярны сейчас?
. А в будущем?
. Изменятся ли основные ценности в XXI веке?
Exercise 5.Read and translate.
1. The earliest kind of mass media was a newspaper. At the beginning it was a handwritten sheet of news that was posted up in the public places. The first printed newspaper came out in China in 700 A.D.
. The first Russian newspaper was issued in 1702 on the initiative of Peter the Great. It was entitled "Vedomosti".
. Radio appeared much later than the first newspaper. Regular radio broadcasting in our country began only in 1924.
. The very first magazine originated from the earliest newspapers and catalogs that appeared in the XVI-XVII centuries in England, France and later - in many other countries.exercises
Exercise 1.Put the verb in brackets into Present Indefinite.
- She (to learn) English.
- I (to like) music.
- My brother (to be) a school-boy. He (to go) to school.
- Michael (to do) his lessons every day.
- She (to live) in this house.
- After supper my sister (to go) for a walk.
- We (to visit) our grandparents very often.
8. The girl (to sing) very well.
. My father (to work) at school.
10. Usually I (to have) dinner at 3 o'clock.
. He (to want) to become a doctor.
. Our mother (to come) home very late.
. His brother (to go) in for sports.
. She (to like) reading very much.
. They often (to take) a bus.
Exercise2. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:
- He goes to school every day.
- My sister works here.
- They eat a lot.
- We work every day."
- I come from Ukraine.
- He conies from Germany.
- They live in the USA.
- He plays football every day.
9. I visit my parents very often.
- His father works at an office.
- She gets up at seven o'clock.
- They play tennis very often.
- We go to the cinema on Saturdays.
- He wants to become a pilot.
- My brother watches television every night.
- I read newspaper every day.
- Her father finishes his work at six o'clock.
- Nick goes to bed at nine.
- He goes to school by bus.
- We skate once a week in winter.
Exercise 3. Put the verb in brackets into Present Indefinite.
- I (not to walk) to work every morning.
- She (to wash) her car once a week.
- We (to spend) our holidays in the country.
- He (not to hope) to go there.
- She (to go) to the theatre twice a month.
- Mary (not to live) near the station.
- You (to take) your dog for a walk?
- She always (to invite) her friends to her birthday party.
- He (to drink) coffee every morning.
- Her brother (to study) in London.
- I (to go shopping) every day.
- He (to speak) Spanish?
13. I (to visit) my friend every week.
Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.
1. Его младший брат ученик.
- Она не работает.
- Он всегда очень занят.
- Он разговаривает по-немецки?
- Моя мама любит классическую музыку.
- Они не хотят идти в кино.
- Где ваши родители?
- Она не играет в шахматы.
- Он никогда не просыпается рано.
- Она делает зарядку каждый день?
- Они ходят в театр раз в месяц.
- Я помогаю маме по хозяйству очень часто.
- Вы пьете кофе утром?
- Он редко ходит в кино.
- Она не читает газет.
- Эти девочки не работают, они учатся.
Exercise5. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:
- My friend lives in London.
- Her uncle speaks French badly.
- It often snows in winter.
- He is my best friend.
- His parents get up very early.
- They listen to the news every evening.
- We usually spend our holidays in the country.
8. They are our relatives.
. My sister wants to become a teacher. 10. Her child likes to read the fairy-tales.
Exercise 6. Translate into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.
У меня есть сестра. Ее имя Анна. Анне девять лет. Она учится в школе в третьем классе. Анна хорошая ученица.Она получает только хорошие оценки. Анна просыпается в семь утра. Она встает, умывается, чистит зубы и делает утреннюю зарядку. В семь тридцать она завтракает. Анна уходит в школу в восемь часов. Она не едет автобусом, а идет пешком. Из школы моя сестра возвращается в три часа. Она не делает сразу уроки. Анна сначала обедает, потом идет на прогулку. Сестра начинает делать уроки в пять часов.
Exercise 7. Answer the following questions according to the model.:What does a driver do? - He drives.do drivers do? - They drive.
. I think I am ill. 2. They often visit their granny. 3. We live in Leeds. 4. You usually speak too quickly. 5. Do you like boiled potatoes? 6. Good animals always obey their masters. 7. The boys box in the gymnasium on Fridays. 8. His dogs always attack the neighbours. 9. Heavy trucks make a lot of noise.9. Write the following sentences a) in the negative,) in the interrogative.
. She understands the rule. 2. He usually has breakfast at 8 o'clock. 3. The lecture starts at 10.15.4. The flowers look fresh. 5. She usually walks in the morning. 6. He has coffee in the evening. 7. She remembers them well. 8. He plays chess very well. 9. She leaves home at 10 o'clock every day. 10. Ann misses you badly. 11. They feel very cold. 12. Tom looks sick. 13. They harvest grapes in March. 14. The last boat sails at 10 p.m. 15. That train goes very fast.10. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite.
. Oscar Wilde and Bernard Shaw (be) the most witty British writers. 2. Fishermen often (tell) tales about their catches. 3. Their children (go) to a private school. 4. Little Amanda (collect) all sorts of toy-pigs. 5. My father (like) a lot of milk in his tea and a few lumps of sugar. 6. Anything that he (say) (be) worth listening to. 7. We usually (spend) our holidays in Spain. 8. My English friends (live) in a nice house that (stand) on a hill that (overlook) lake Windermere, which (be) in the Lake District. 9. What this sentence (mean)? 10. I (live) in Tver, which (be) my native town. 11. My brother (sing) in Italian opera. 12. My sister (have) a good appetite and she always (eat) heartily. 13. Let's go outside. It (be) terribly hot in the house. 14. What you (see) over there? 15. In England the traffic (keep) to the left but on the Continent it (keep) to the right. 16. This map (be) the largest that we (have). 17. They often (come) to see me in my town house. 18. The twittering of birds in the trees in spring (be) a pleasant sound.11. Answer the questions using the Present Indefinite.
. What time do you go to the Institute? (generally, usually) 2. What do you do on Sunday mornings? (often) 3. How do you spend your leisure time? (usually, occasionally) 4. What sort of radio programmes do you listen to? (usually, often, always) 5. How do you help your parents? (always, sometimes, usually) 6. What sort of films do you enjoy? (nearly always) 7. Where do you read for your examinations? (normally, sometimes) 8. Where do you have your meals? (usually, sometimes) 9. What do you take if you have a headache? (generally, usually) 10. How do you celebrate your birthday? (nearly always, occasionally)12. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form.: The lecture begins at 10 o'clock (begin).many languages do you speak (you/speak)?
- What time(the museums/open) in St. Petersburg?
- I have a bike but I(not/use) it very often.
- How many cups of tea(you/drink) a day?
- "What(you/do)?" - "I am a chemical engineer."
- "Where (your father/come) from?" - "He(come) from Minsk."
- If you need help, why(you/not/ask) for it?
- I(play) the guitar, but I(not/play) very well.
Exercise 13. Make questions. Begin the questions using the word(s) in brackets.:Bob plays chess. (How often)? How often does Bob play chess?get up early. (What time/usually?) What time do you usually get up?
- Felix watches birds. (How often?)
- I write to my parents. (How often?)
- I have dinner in the evening. (What time/usually?)
- She works. (Where?)
- I go to the Zoo. (How often?)
- People do stupid things. (Why?)
- The motor breaks down. (How often?)
Exercise 14. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.
1. Я обычно делаю домашнее задание вечером. 2. Мой друг живет на Севере. 3. Моя сестра учится в медицинском колледже. 4. У них два занятия иностранным языком в неделю. 5. Он всегда навещает нас, когда бывает в Москве. 6. "Сколько времени вы тратите на дорогу домой?" - "Как правило, я трачу на дорогу домой около тридцати минут."7. Он теперь редко путешествует. 8. Вы часто ходите в кино? 9. Она никогда не опаздывает. Она всегда приходит вовремя. 10. "Вы чувствуете что-нибудь?" - "Нет, я ничего не чувствую."11. Его отец - инженер. Он строит мосты. 12. Я не учу французский язык, я учу немецкий. 13. Теперь мы редко с ними встречаемся. 14. Ее муж часто ездит в командировки?
Exercise 15. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite.
(USUALLY) 1. My working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes. At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My father and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o'clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).2. My sister (to get) up at eight o'clock. 3. She (to be) a schoolgirl. She (to go) to school in the afternoon. 4. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 5. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 6. After breakfast she (to go) to school. 7. It (to take) him two hours to do his homework. 8. She (to speak) French well.16. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite.
(USUALLY) 1.Andrea Schatzmann, an exchange student from Switzerland, (to live) with the Connor family in San Francisco. She (to get) up at 7 am and (to take) a shower. She normally (not to have) breakfast. At half past seven she (to catch) the bus. Her first class (to start) at a quarter past eight. She always (to have) lunch at 12 o'clock in the cafeteria. The cafeteria food (to be) OK and it (to be) cheap too. Her afternoon classes (to be) from 1.15 till 3.00 pm, so she (to be) at school all day. She usually (to have) dinner with the Connors at about 8.00. On Saturdays she (to have) lunch at the restaurant. Once a week, usually on Sunday mornings, she (to go) swimming. A few friends usually (to go) along, too. One of her friends has got a car, so he (to pick) them up and then he (to drive) them home. After swimming they often (to go) out for a pizza. On Saturday evenings she sometimes (to go) out with friends to a party or maybe to a concert. Sometimes she (to invite) friends to her house and they (to listen) to music and (to talk). Mr and Mrs Connor often (to take) them for a camping weekend to the seaside or to the mountains. From time to time she (to call) her family in Switzerland. They never (to talk) for very long because it (to be) expensive. She usually (to call) on Sundays because it (to be) cheaper then. 2. What time Andrea usually (to get) up? 3. When she (to catch) the bus? 4. She (to take) a shower in the morning? 5. She (to go) home for lunch? 6. When she (to go) swimming? 7. How she (to get) to the pool? 8. What she (to do) on Saturday evenings?17. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.
(ОБЫЧНО) 1. Я работаю. 2. Мы работаем. 3. Они не работают. 4. Вы работаете? - Да. 5. Он работает? - Нет. Он учится. 6. Мой брат не учится. Он работает. 7. Ты носишь очки? 8. Вы помогаете людям? 9. Он любит читать сказки? 10. Она любит играть на скрипке? 11. Моя сестра не читает книг. 12. Наша бабушка любит спать на диване. 13. Вы любите отдыхать в кресле? 14. Мы едим и пьем в кухне. 15. Мой брат не любит читать газеты. 16. Мы спим в спальне. 17. Мой брат спит на диване в жилой комнате. 18. Моя сестра одевается перед зеркалом. 19. Мой дядя пишет книги. 20. Мы пишем упражнения в школе. 21. Я трачу свои карманные деньги на мороженое. 22. Он читает все время и не любит смотреть телевизор.
Exercise 18. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.
1.Где ты живешь? - Я живу в Москве. 2. Когда у тебя каникулы? - В январе. 3. Что тебе больше всего нравится в школе? 4. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает в двадцать минут восьмого. Он работает утром и днем. Вечером он не работает. Вечером он отдыхает. 5. Твоя сестра говорит по-французски? - Нет. Она говорит по-немецки, а ее муж; говорит по-английски. 6. Когда вы встаете? - Я встаю без четверти семь. 7. Когда встает твой брат? - Он встает без двадцати восемь. - А твоя сестра тоже встает без двадцати восемь? - Нет. Мой брат ходит в школу, а моя сестра не ходит в школу. Она еще не ученица. Она встает в девять часов. 8. Он не моет руки перед едой. 9. Этот мальчик свистит в классе. 10. Он не играет ни на каком музыкальном инструменте. 11. Они играют в футбол и любят смотреть мультфильмы. 12. Они любят школьные каникулы, особенно летние. 13. День рождения у девочки 31 декабря. 14. Поэтому она получает много подарков.
Exercise 19. Translate the sentences into English using the Present Indefinite Tense.
Мой дядя - инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день начинается рано утром. Он встает в семь часов. Он умывается, одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его жена - врач. Она работает в больнице. Вечером она изучает французский язык. Она посещает курсы французского языка. Мой дядя не говорит по-французски. Он говорит по-русски и по-немецки. Он изучает английский язык. Вечером он посещает курсы английского языка. Сын моего дяди - ученик. Он ходит в школу. В школе он изучает английский язык.
UNIT IVPress1.Read and give a summary of the text.press is usually referred to as "the Fourth Power" after the government's legislative, executive and judicial branches.role of the press as an activist, reformer, exposer and independent monitor of power is very significant. The press has been ideally positioned to provide the information that people need to know in order to participate in public affairs. It is an important instrument of open debates and discussions in any society. And in this context, the press independence is of paramount importance because the free press expands freedom and strengthens democracy.the press must assert the core values, that focus on the needs of people, and meet new demands.press denotes newspapers and periodicals that open up for the public unprecedented levels of access to any kind of information.can cover a greater range of events and news, and in more details, than radio and TV. They present and comment on the issues of public importance. They also shape people's opinions and have great effect on their views.are collections including different articles and stories, fiction and poetry, illustrations, horoscopes, crosswords, etc. They may focus on the events of the current week (weeklies) or month (monthlies), providing a great deal of information in such spheres as culture, religion, science, technology, medicine, economics and business, sports, hobbies, tourism, etc.
Exercise 2. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations.
1) Четвертая власть; 2) исполнительная, судебная, законодательная ветви правительства; 3) значительная роль; 4) предоставлять любую информацию; 5) быть в идеальном положении; 6) периодика, газеты; 7) реформатор и независимый наблюдатель; 8) принимать участие в делах государства; 9) проза и поэзия; 10) иллюстрации и гороскопы; 11) потребности народа; 12) охватывать широкий диапазон событий; 13) формировать общественное мнение и взгляды; 14) представлять первостепенное значение; 15) открывать беспрецедентный уровень доступа к информации; 16) независимая пресса; 17) отвечать новым требованиям; 18) укреплять демократию; 19) дискуссии в обществе; 20) отстаивать главные ценности; 21) включать различные статьи и рассказы; 22) потребности народа; 23) открытые дебаты; 24) давать комментарий и новости; 25) охватывать широкий диапазон событий; 26) еженедельник, ежемесячник; 27) события текущей недели; 28) вопросы общественного значения.
Exercise 3.Give a synonym for each of the words.
1) Important, 2) to name, 3) main, 4) to take part, 5) to defend, 6) to concentrate, 7) requirement, 8) influence, 9) different, 10) to comprise, 11) control, 12) discussion, 13) to embrace, 14) primary, 15) to mean.4.Answer the following questions.
. How is the press usually called?
. What is its main role?
. The press is often called an important instrument of debates, isn't it? Why?
. Must the press be independent or not?
. What values should it focus on?
. What does the press denote?
. What are the functions of newspapers?
. And what about periodicals?
. What do they differ in?
. What is their importance?
Exercise 5.Read and translate.
Do you know?are about 500 TV companies, both public and private, over 245 radio stations, 25 000 newspapers and magazines, both official and unofficial, and about 250 news agencies in the Russian Federation.by the latest opinion polls, more than 90% of our country population watch TV as the main source of information; 75% are regular readers of various local and national papers and periodicals; 72% use the Internet; 24% listen to the radio.6.Read and give a summary of the text.are dozens, often hundreds, of various newspapers in every country. As a rule, they include daily and weekly papers, national and local papers, evening and Sunday papers, etc.newspapers are usually divided into two formats: broadsheets (or quality papers) and tabloids (or populars). They differ, first of all, in size, cost and circulation. The populars arc smaller in size, cheaper, but have the largest circulations compared with the quality papers. Besides, both types of newspapers vary in a kind of language and photos they use. They appeal to people with different interests and tastes. And, of course, they approach the news and events in different ways.broadsheets provide their readers with the in-depth information and background reports. They usually deal with the major national and international events and news, with the world of politics and business. They also include arts and sport reviews and advertising blocks. They are addressed to the educated readers.tabloids, basically, try to entertain, amuse or even shock their readers. They have lots of illustrations, various sensational stories about the private life of many famous people, film or pop stars, news reviews, horoscopes, etc.newspapers cannot afford to have their own reporters because journalists are very expensive, especially abroad. That's why they get most of their news from various news agencies, that are large organizations, having their reporters all over the world. Every day these agencies collect various information and breaking news from their reporters and sell them to newspapers, magazines, TV and radio stations of different countries.present, the world's most known news agencies are: the Reuters (the UK), the Associated Press (the USA), the RIA-NOVOSTI and ITAR TASS (Russia), the EPA (European Press Agency, Germany), the France Press (France) and some others. They are worldwide, multi-lingual, multimedia news agencies, having thousands of their reporters in all parts of the Globe as well as large staffs, working 24 hours a day.
Exercise 2. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations.
1) серьезная газета/газета большого формата; 2) газета малого формата/бульварная газета; 3) главные международные события; 4) обзор новостей; 5) освещать события по-разному; 6) мир политики/ бизнеса/рекламы; 7) отличаться по размеру и цене; 8) огромный тираж; 9) спортивное обозрение; 10) обеспечивать своих читателей подробной информацией; 11) люди разных вкусов и интересов; 12) использовать разный стиль (язык); 13) обращаться к образованному читателю; 14) предназначать для широкой публики; 15) развлекать и забавлять людей; 16) рассказы о личной жизни известных людей; 17) включать фото, гороскопы, кроссворды и множество иллюстраций; 18) шокировать читателей сенсационными историями; 19) заниматься рекламой; 20) собирать и продавать различную информацию; 21) крупные радиостанции и телекомпании; 22) позволять себе большой штат служащих; 23) крупные агентства новостей/многомедийные и многоязычные агентства; 24) горячие новости.
Exercise3.Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information.
1.There are lots of various newspapers and magazines in the world.
.Today's press means radio and television.
.As a rule, all newspapers are issued in two formats.
.Populars are cheaper compared to quality papers.
.Broadsheets are more popular than tabloids.
.They try to amuse and shock their readers.
.Almost all tabloids contain sensational news and stories about various film and pop stars, horoscopes and games.
.Their circulations approach several million copies.
.Both quality papers and populars use the same language and photos.
.However, broadsheets are basically addressed to people, who can't read at all.
.Tabloids don't entertain the public.
.Most papers can afford to have their own reporters because they are very cheap.
.That's why they never buy any breaking news from large news agencies.4.Answer the following questions.
.What does the today's press consist of?
.What format are most newspapers issued in?
.Characterize a broadsheet.
.And what can you say about "a tabloid?
.Do quality papers and tabloids have anything in common?
.What is the difference between them?
.Where do most newspapers get breaking news?
.What are the world's largest news agency?
.What do you know about them?
.What Russian broadsheets and tabloids do you know?
.Which of them are the most popular ones?
.And where do they get information, in your opinion?exercises1.Transform into the plural:is a table in the room. There are tables in the room.
. There is a chair near the table. 2. There is a vase on the window sill. 3. There is a book in the bookcase. 4. There is an armchair in front of the TV set. 5. There is a pencil under the table. 6. There is a cup in the cupboard. 7. There is a fork among the spoons. 8. There is a bench near the blackboard. 9. There is a bottle in the cupboard. 10. There is a jug on the table.2.Transform into the singular:are plates on the table.is a plate on the table.
.There are taps above the sink. 2. There are forks on the plate. 3. There are pans in the cupboard. 4. There are knives in the table. 5. There are beds in the room. 6. There are shelves on the wall. 7. There are rugs on the floor. 8. There are spoons among the knives. 9. There are lamps on the ceiling. 10. There are desks in the room.3.Open the brackets:(to be) a book on the table. There is a book on the table.(to be) books on the table. There are books on the table.
. There (to be) books on the shelf. 2. There (to be) flowers in the vase. 3. There (to be) a magazine under the table. 4. There (to be) a fridge between the stove and the sink. 5. There (to be) chairs near the window. 6. There (to be) chairs around the table. 7. There (to be) a lamp above the table. 8. There (to be) some words in the sentence. 9. There (to be) some syllables in the word. 10. There (to be) some children in the room.4.Translate into English:столе - КНИГАHa столе - КНИГИ.is a book on the table. There are books on the table.
1. На подоконнике - цветы. 2. Посередине комнаты - стол. 3. Около кресла - пылесос. 4. Над раковиной - краны. 5. В комнате - двери. 6. В тексте - несколько абзацев. 7. На кухне - посудный шкаф. 8. На потолке - лампа. 9. В предложении - несколько слов. 10. На окнах -шторы.
Exercise 5.Open the brackets:(to be) a book on the table. There is a book on the table.(to be) books on the table. There are books on the table.
. There (to be) books on the shelf. 2. There (to be) flowers in the vase. 3. There (to be) a magazine under the table. 4. There (to be) a fridge between the stove and the sink. 5. There (to be) chairs near the window. 6. There (to be) chairs around the table. 7. There (to be) a lamp above the table. 8. There (to be) some words in the sentence. 9. There (to be) some syllables in the word. 10. There (to be) some children in the room.6.Choose the suitable translation of the sentences:
1.Maмино кресло стоит в углу.
a)There is an armchair in the corner.)The mother's armchair is in the comer.)The mother's armchair in the corner.)There was the mother's armchair in the corner.
.Baза на подоконнике.)There was a vase on the window sill.)There is a vase on the window sill.)The vase is on the window sill.)The vase was on the window sill.
.Словарь - в книжном шкафу.)The dictionary was in the bookcase.)The dictionary is in the bookcase.)There is a dictionary in the bookcase.)There was a dictionary in the bookcase.
4.B посудном шкафу - тарелки и кастрюли.
a)There are plates and pans in the cupboard.)There were plates and pans in the cupboard.)There is plates and pans in the cupboard.)There was plates and pans in the cupboard.
.В тексте - несколько абзацев.)There were some paragraphs in the text.)There are some paragraphs in the text.)Some paragraphs are in the text.)Some paragraphs in the text.7.Ask questions to the following statements, then answer them according to the pattern.: There is a good programme on TV tonight.
Is there a good programme on TV tonight?
Yes, there is.aren't any theatres in my town.
Are there any theatres in your town?
No, there are not/there aren't.
. There is a cat in the window. 2. There are a few changes in the text. 3. There are plenty of glasses in the cupboard. 4. There were a lot of people at the stadium. 5. There isn't anything on the plate. 6. There wasn't anybody in the room. 7. There are difficult exercises in this book. 8. There is something on the shelf. 9. There will be some interesting programmes on TV tomorrow. 10. There are several empty seats in the room. 11. There weren't any pears on the plate.8.Translate into English.
А. 1. В этом журнале много интересных статей. 2. В нашем городе много музеев и театров. 3. В этой комнате есть телефон? 4. В этой комнате два окна. 5. В чашке не было чая. 6. Сколько статей было в этом журнале? - Там было несколько статей. 7. Сколько студентов в аудитории? - Двадцать. 8. Рядом с нашим домом будет парк. 9. На этой улице была школа? 10. На столе лежит несколько книг
В. 1. Рядом с нашим домом есть школа. Школа находится рядом с нашим домом. 2. В городе несколько театров. Театры находятся в центре города. 3. В вазе стояли цветы. Цветы стояли в красивой вазе. 4. В театре много детей. Дети сейчас в театре.5. Существует несколько способов решения этой задачи. Способы решения этой задачи приведены на странице.
Exercise 9.Supply some, any or no for the following sentences.
. I bought ... books.
. Are there ... books, on your shelf?
. I have ... good news for you.
. Did you buy ... milk?
. Would you like ... tea?
. Have you ... pencils?
. Are there plates on the table? - There are ...
. There are ... high houses in his street.
. I want ... bread, please.
. Are there ... magazines on the shelf? - Yes, there are... .
. He has ... information for us.
. I'd like ... water, please.
. She sent me ... postcards from England.
. Did you meet ... friend yesterday?
. Are there ... new pupils in your class? - Yes, there are ....10.Supply some, any or no for the following sentences.
. There are ... new schools in my district.
. Only ... students came in time.
. She bought ... books, but she didn't buy ... magazines.
. Do you want ... milk?
. There are ... people in the streets, because it's cold.
. Would you like ... juice?
. I bought a pen but I didn't buy ... pencils.
. At this time we usually have ... food.
. Did he spend ... days in Paris?
. There is ... cheese on the plate.
. Sorry, I haven't got ... matches.
. He didn't give me ... money.
. Can you give me ... sugar?
. I've got ... oranges, but I haven't got ... apples.
. Are there ... people in this room?
. Do you learn ... foreign languages?
. We don't think we've got ... time today.11.Supply some, any or no for the following sentences.
. There is ... water in my glass. I'd like to drink.
. There are ... beautiful pictures on the walls. Look at them.
. Can I have ... more milk?
. Have you got ... friends? - Yes, I have... .
. Are there ... pencils is your pencil-box? Give me ..., please.
. She went to the shop, but she didn't buy ... eggs.
. He has read ... 20 pages.
. Did they send you ... letters from England?
. Why have ... students gone home?
. Have you found ... mushrooms in the wood?
. I'm thirsty. Give me ... tea, please.
. Have you got ... time to go to the cinema?
. Are there ... pupils in the class-room? - Yes, there are ... .
. Don't forget to buy ... sugar.
. Where did you leave ... of your books?12. Supply some, any or no for the following sentences.
. Did you have ... salt in the soup?
. I've got ... money. Give me ... money, please.
. Will you take ... of these photographs?
. They haven't got ... children.
. She doesn't like ... apples.
. Are there ... fruit-trees in your garden?
. Did they ask you ... questions? - Yes, they asked... .
. Does he make ... mistakes in his dictations?
. My friend has bought ... new shoes.
. ... people there are very unfriendly.
. Do you like ... oranges?
. Where can I get ... cigarettes?
. They waited ... ten minutes.
. You may come at ... time.
. ... people like to spend weekend in the country.13. Supply something, anything, nothing or everything.
1.He saw ... strange in the dark.
.Have you ... to read?
.Did ... help you to do your work?
.May I draw ... I like?
.I'm all right. ... happened.
.They don't know ... about it.
.Would you like ... special for dinner?
.This pupil wants to know ... about animals.
.Will you have...to eat?
. There is ... in the box.
Exercise 14. Supply something, anything, nothing or everything.
1.Give me ... to eat, please. I'm hungry.
.I think they don't tell me ... about this accident.
.It's dark in the room. I see ...
.What are you doing? - ... special.
.You may choose ... you like.
.Did he tell you the last news? - No, he told ...
.Give me your hand, please. I didn't see ...
.... has changed in my city.
.Is there ... interesting to see in your town?
. There is ... in my pocket.
Exercise 14.Supply something, anything, nothing or everything.
1.Open the door. ... is knocking.
.... has told me the truth.
.The train was almost empty. They weren't ... on it.
.Did you invite ... to come?
.I don't see ... in this room.
.It' s very simple. ... can do that.
.... came to visit my friend when he was ill.
.I found ... bag in the street.
.... in the group did the homework.
. Did you ask ... to help you?
Exercise 15. Write the following sentences a) in the negative,) in the interrogative.
1.There are some new buildings in my town.
.Somebody has taken my pen.
.I may do everything I want.
.He has some pens in his pencil-box.
.She saw everything with her own eyes.
.Somebody is there.
.Nobody helped him.
.I don't have anything for breakfast.
.There were some apples on the table.
10.Everybody can answer this question.
.We didn't buy any vegetables.
.Everybody wanted to play football.
.Somebody phoned you yesterday.
.Nobody saw this lady.
.He doesn't want anything to eat.
Exercise 16. Translate into English.
1.У меня есть несколько английских книг.
.Послушай! Кто-то разговаривает в соседней комнате.
.Ты знаешь кого-нибудь из этой семьи?
.В классе есть кто-нибудь? - Нет, там никого нет.
.Вы знаете что-нибудь про этот случай? - Да, я кое-что знаю.
.Эту книгу вы можете приобрести в любом книжном магазине.
.Ты можешь купить все, что захочешь.
.Вы прочитали что-нибудь интересное в прошлом месяце?
.Тут был кто-нибудь вчера? - Нет, тут никого не было.
.В моей сумке ничего нет.
.Дайте мне немного воды, пожалуйста.
.Все хотели пойти в кино.
.Ты нашел что-нибудь интересное в этом журнале?
.Расскажите нам все про этого человека.
.Никто не хотел возвращаться туда на следующий день.
Exercise17. Translate into English.
1.Некоторые из нас не смогли прийти вовремя.
.Этот автор написал около 20 книг.
.Он взял немного денег и пошел в магазин.
.Кто-то прислал письмо из Лондона.
.В этом диктанте я не сделал никаких ошибок.
.Прошу, не бери тут ничего!
.Хотите кофе? - Спасибо, я не хочу ничего.
.Не стучите, там никого нет.
.Кто-нибудь из вас разговаривает по-немецки? - Никто.
.Кто-нибудь видел как она ушла?
.Я ничего не понимаю! Объясните мне все, пожалуйста.
.Этот фильм чудесный. Можешь спросить у любого, кто его видел.
.Тут есть кто-нибудь, кто может мне помочь?
.Дайте мне хлеба и молока, пожалуйста.
.Она не дала мне никаких денег.
Exercise 18.Supply somewhere, anywhere, nowhere or everywhere.
1.He put his book ... yesterday.
.Have you seen that man ...?
.I can't find my watch ....
.Where is your son? - He has gone ....
.The station isn't ... near here.
.The weather is sunny. Let's go ... .
.It's autumn. There is a lot of yellow and red leaves ... .
.I want to go ... next holydays.
. Where did you go on Sunday? - .... I stayed at home.
. Where is Nick? - He is ... in the garden.
Exercise 19. Translate into English.
1.Куда ты идешь? - Никуда.
2.Вы знаете какой-нибудь иностранный язык?
.Можешь идти куда захочешь. Никто тебя не остановит.
.У вашего друга есть какие-нибудь книги про животных?
.Я не вижу никаких ошибок в вашем диктанте.
.Некоторые из этих статей очень интересные.
.Я не думаю, что у нас есть время для обсуждения этого вопроса.
.Пожалуйста, возьмите любую книгу, которая вам нравится.
.У вас есть какие-нибудь вопросы? - Да. Есть несколько.
.Некоторые дети не любят играть в футбол.
.Пожалуйста, дайте мне мел.
.У нее есть какие-нибудь друзья в этом городе?
.Ты не можешь никуда идти. У тебя много работы.
.Никто не хотел сделать ничего плохого.
.Кто-нибудь из твоих друзей помог тебе сделать это задание?
Exercise20. Supply some, any, every or their derivatives:
.We don't see ... in the corridor.
.Please, take ... magazine you like.
.... likes to play chess.
.They didn't get ... letters yesterday.
.... likes to be ill.
.Can I have ... coffee? - Yes, you can have ....
.We haven't got ... questions.
.Can you put ... extra sugar in my tea?
.... likes to play this game: it's dull.
.... of our pupils study well.
.Have you met ... in the street? - No, I met ... .
.They didn't say ..... Supply some, any, no, every or their derivatives:
1. I am trying to find ... explanation to his behavior.
. This is a question that ... child can answer.
. There is ... strange in his appearance.
. Do you like ... ice-cream?
. Do you need ... from the shop?
. Where are ... magazines which you bought yesterday?
. We use ... water to cook soup.
. He needs to buy ... new socks.
. Could you do ... about this noise?
. My sister has just moved and she doesn't know ... in this house.
. Pass me ... slices of cheese, please.
. Does Nick still live here? - No, ... else is living here now.
Exercise 21. Translate into English.
Много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней, много газет, много мела, много снега, много лет, много картин, много музыки, много мальчиков, много девочек, много чая, много лимонов, много мяса, много комнат, много учителей, много работы, много воздуха, много птиц, много машин.
Exercise22. Use much or many.
. A don't eat ... mangoes. 2. He eats ... fish. 3. She ate so ... dessert that she is in bed today with a stomachache. 4. That man drank so ... wine, and he smoked so ... cigarettes that he has a terrible headache today. 5. Mary must not eat too ... salt because she has problems with her blood pressure. 6. My mother says I eat too ... French fries and drink too ... beer. She wants me to be healthy. 7. There is not too ... space in my flat. 8. There are ... new pictures in this room. 9. There are ... teachers at our school, and ... of them are women. 10. ... of these plays are quite new. 11. Thanks awfully for the books you sent me yesterday. - Don't mention it, it wasn't ... bother. 12. ... of her advice was useful. 13. He had ... pairs of socks. 14. Please don't put ... pepper on the meat. 15. There were ... plates on the table. 16. I never eat ... bread with soup. 17. Why did you eat so ... ice cream? 18. She wrote us ... letters from the country. 19. ... of these students don't like to look up words in the dictionary. 20. ... in this work was too difficult for me. 21. ... of their answers were excellent. 22. ... of their conversation was about the university.23. Translate into English.
Мало домов, мало чая, мало чашек, мало яблок, мало окон, мало бумаги, мало кофе, мало статей, мало радости, мало супу, мало деревьев, мало травы, мало детей, мало игрушек, мало света, мало парт, мало колбасы, мало сока, мало книг, мало цветов, мало соли, мало друзей, мало дворцов.
Exercise 24. Use little or few.
. He has got ... friends. 2. I drink ... coffee. I don't like it. 3. We must hurry. We've got very ... time. 4. There are very ... scholarships for students in this university. 5. The Smiths have ... money. They aren't rich. 6. The theatre was almost empty. There were very ... people there. 7. There was ... lemonade in the bottle. There were ... peaches in the basket. 8. I have ... time, so I can't go with you. 9. He has ... English books. 10. There is ... juice in my glass. Have you got any juice? 11. There are ... bears in the zoo. 14. The children returned from the wood very sad because they had found very ... mushrooms. 15.There was too ... light in the room, and I could not read. 16. There are very ... people who don't know that the Earth is round.25. Use much, many, little or few.
. Robert wrote so ... letters that he's never going to write a letter again. 2. She ate so ... ice cream that she's going to have a sore throat. 3. His father earned ... money, but he enjoyed his job. He loved teaching English very .... 4. There are ... cookies in the box. I should have bought them last Monday. 5. Does your sister read ... ? - Yes, she does. And your brother? - Oh, he doesn't. He has so ... books, but he reads very .... 6. Have you ... work to do today? - No, not very ... 7. Walk quicker, please.We have very ... time. 8. I am sorry to say, I have read very ... books by Walter Scott. 9. My brother is a young teacher. Every day he spends ... time preparing for his lessons. 10. I know very ... about this writer. It is the first book I am reading. 11. The pupils of our class ask ... questions at the lesson. They want to know everything. 12. You do not make ... mistakes in your spelling. Do you work hard at it? - Oh, yes, I do, I work very ... .
Exercise 26. Translate into English.
Немного денег, мало денег, несколько стульев, мало стульев, несколько песен, мало песен, немного веселья, мало веселья, мало мальчиков, немного воды, несколько человек, мало воды, мало воздуха, мало столов, несколько минут, несколько кошек, мало травы, немного удачи, несколько дней, мало работы, немного соли, несколько ложек, мало света, мало окон, несколько машин, немного сахару, мало яиц, мало сыра.
Exercise 27. Put at, in, on in the correct position.
. There is someone … the door.
. I sat down … the sofa.
. They live … Coronation street number 32.
. My book is … the table … the sitting room.
. When I was … Spain it was terribly hot.
. I've applied for a job … the United Nation … Geneva.
. There was a note … the table. It was from Elsie. She had signed her name … the bottom.
. There is a good film ... the cinema.
. It was very cold … the cinema.
. When we were … the south we stayed … a small hotel …. the coast.
. I had to return as I had forgotten to switch off the light … in the shop.
. I had a seat … the front row.28. Translate the prepositions in brackets.
1.I'll meet you (в) airport.
.They've sailed to the Pacific. They are probably (на) the Pacific now.
.When I go to the cinema I prefer to sit (на) the front row.
.Who is that woman (на) that photograph?
.Who is man standing (y) the door?
.Don't sit (нa) that armchair. It's broken. Sit (Ha) that chair.
.Portsmouth is (нa) the south coast of England.
.Our house is (в) the end of the street.
.There's a report of the football match (нa) page 7 of the newspaper.
.You'll find the sport results (нa) the back page of the newspaper.
.Turn left (y) the traffic lights.
Exercise 29. Put in a preposition of direction.
. A book fell … the shelf.
. I can't see it, hold the picture up …the light.
. The Moon travels … the Earth.
. Fish can't live … water.
. She fainted and fell …the floor.
. How far is itherethe airport?
. She was sitting with the back turned … the window.
. I enjoy looking … the window and watch the people in the street.
. The cat got … the house …the window.. Translate the words in brackets.
. He took his handkerchief (из) his pocket. 2. He threw the letter (в) the fire. 3. I have return the book (в) the library tomorrow. 4. At 6 o'clock the taxi stopped (y) the door, we got (из) it and went (нa) the station. 5. I looked (в) the window and saw a little boy running (пo) the street. 6. He has just returned (из) his flight (нa) the North. 7. He jumped (в) the river and swam about. 8. On my way home I walk (мимо) your office every day. 9. He opened the door and went out (нa) the street. 10. Italy has to import coal and oil (из) other countries. 11. I've received a letter (от) my friend, he writes that he'll soon return (нa) the South.V1. a) Read the text, try focus on its essential facts. Choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph:
) What is Education? 2) Formal Education 3) Informal Education 4) Different Kinds of Formal Education
b) Make a précis of the text, using the following phrases:
. The title of the text is... 2. The text is about... The text deals with... 3. The text covers such points as... 4. It should be underlined that... 5. in conclusion, I may say that... 6. To my mind... 7.In my opinion...AND FORMAL EDUCATIONincludes different kinds of learning experiences. In its broadest sense, we consider education to be/the ways in which people learn skills, gain knowledge and understanding about the world and about themselves. One useful scheme for discussing education is to divide these ways of learning into two types: informal and formal.education involves people in learning during their daily life. For example, children learn their language simply by hearing and by trying to speak themselves. In the same informal manner, they learn to dress themselves, to eat with good manners, to ride a bicycle, or to make a telephone call. Education is also informal when people try to get information or to learn skills on their own initiative without a teacher. To do so, they may visit a book shop, library or museum. They may watch a television show, see a videotape, or listen to a radio programme. They do not have to pass tests or exams.consider formal education to be the instruction given at different kinds of schools, colleges, universities. In most countries, people enter a system of formal education during their early childhood. In this type of education, the people, who are in charge of education, decide what to teach. Then learnersthose things with the teachers at the head. Teachers expect learners to come to school regularly and on time, to work at about the same speed as their classmates, and to pass tests and exams. Learners have to pass the exams to show how well they have progressed in their learning. At the end of their learning, learners may earn a diploma, a certificate, or a degree as a mark of their success over the years.school systems of all modern nations provide both general and vocational education. Most countries also offer special education programmes for gifted or for physically or mentally handicapped children. Adult education programmes are provided for people who wish to take up their education after leaving school. Most countries spend a large amount of time and money for formal education of their citizens. Read and give a summary of the text.AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATIONeducation aims at producing intelligent, responsible, well-informed citizens. It is designed to transmit a common cultural heritage rather than to develop trained specialists.all elementary education is general education. In every country, primary school pupils are taught skills they will use throughout their life, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. They also receive instruction in different subjects, including geography, history, etc. In most countries almost all young people continue their general education in secondary schools.aim of vocational education is primarily to prepare the students for a job. Some secondary schools specialize in vocational programmes. Technical schools are vocational secondary schools, where students are taught more technical subjects, such as carpentry, metalwork, and electronics. Technical school students are required to take some general education courses and vocational training. Universities and separate professional schools prepare students for careers in such fields as agriculture, architecture, business, engineering, law, medicine, music, teaching, etc.3. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:
1) в широком смысле; 2) обучаются навыкам; 3) получают знания; 4) о себе; 5) полезная схема;6) официальный; 7) неофициальный; 8) повседневная жизнь; 9) например; 10) слушая; 11) стараясь; 12) с хорошими манерами; 13) ездить на велосипеде; 14) звонить по телефону; 15) по их собственной инициативе; 16) книжный магазин; 17) сдавать экзамены; 18) в большинстве стран; 19) раннее детство; 20) кто отвечает (в ответственности); 21)во главе; 22) во время; 23) приблизительно одинаковой скоростью; 24) одноклассники; 25)должны сдавать экзамены; 26) степень; 27) оценка их успеха; 28) одаренные дети; 29) дети с физическими или умственными недостатками; 30) обучение для взрослых; 31) продолжить после окончания школы; 32) большое количество денег; 33) граждане; 34) общее образование; 35) профессиональное образование; 36) ставит целью; 38) умный; 39) ответственный; 40) хорошо информированный; 41) передавать общее культурное наследство; 42) больше чем; 43) подготовленные специалисты;44) начальное образование;45) на протяжении всей жизни; 46) средние школы; 47) профессиональные программы; 48) плотничное дело; 49) слесарное дело; 50) профессиональная подготовка; 51) отдельный; 52)техника; 53) юриспруденция.
Exercise 4. a) Find in the texts the words, which have the similar meanings as the following words:contain, to believe, the means, to study, to get, a kind, to talk, data, various, to be responsible for, a diploma, to want, to continue;) Find in the texts the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following words:, narrow, bad, different, the beginning, old, to give up, small, before.4. Fill in the gaps with the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you:
. T... their life people are learning different kinds of skills. 2. They g... knowledge about the world. 3. We'll discuss the education using one useful s... 4. Children learn to r... a bicycle. 5. On their own i..., people may visit a museum. 6. The students have to p... exams. 7. They are in c... of education. 8. The students are working at about the same s... 9. Learners may e... a degree. 10. His certificate is a m... of his success over the years.5. Find in the texts, translate, and analyse:) grammar forms with the ending -ing:of learning experiencesgain understanding about the worldscheme for discussingways of learningpeople in learninghearing and by trying to speak themselvestheir learningleaving schooleducation aims at producingas reading, writing, and arithmeticdifferent subjects, including geography) grammar forms with the ending -ed:have progressed for gifted childrenphysically and mentally handicapped children programmes are provided well-informed citizens it is designed) grammar forms with the ending -s:includes the school systemskindsall modern nationslearn skillstheir citizensways of learning general education aims attypes trained specialistseducation involves different subjectsgood mannerssecondary schoolspass exams and tests vocational programmes, colleges, universitiestechnical schoolsmost countries technical subjectsstudyfor careersin such fieldsthe years. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:
. Education includes different kinds of ...
. People gain knowledge and understanding about ...
. There are two types of...
. Informal education involves people in ...
. Children learn their language simple by ...
. People get information or learn skills on ...
. Formal education is the instruction given at ...
. People enter a system of formal education during ...
. Teachers expect learners to come to school ...
. Learners have to pass the exams to show ...
. General education aims at producing intelligent ...
. Primary school pupils are taught skills they will...
. Almost all young people continue their general education in ...
. Vocational education prepares the students for ...
. Learners may earn a diploma, a certificate, or ...7. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:
. There are two types of education. 2. One useful scheme for discussing education is to divide the ways of learning into two types. 3. Informal education involves people in learning during their daily life. 4. Formal education is the instruction given at different kinds of colleges. 5. At the end of learning, learners do not earn a diploma or a certificate.Exercises1. Read the following verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense.
А. looked, worked, helped, talked, liked, hoped, missed, developed, stopped, noticed, discussed, danced, passed, pronounced, practised, addressed, introduced, checked, watched, wished.. lived, trained, used, studied, listened, turned, showed, entered, answered, enjoyed, played, opened, loved, believed, borrowed, occupied, described, Continued, involved, ironed, copied, married, changed, engaged, organized, specialized, realized.. decided, included, attended, depended, sounded, founded, mended, offended, attracted, wanted, consisted, instructed, directed, translated, devoted, expected, conducted, graduated, waited, insisted.2.Give three forms of the verbs., write, take, give, drive, have, be, go, come, get, put, understand, make, fall, feel, awake, bring, ring, run, sit, set, think, drink, find, throw, hit, hurt, buy, cost, send, say, tell, speak, seek, hear, see, win, ride, catch, hide, let, burst, broadcast.3. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.
. That afternoon Lily came home early from school. 2. In three days Mr. Ruggles received an answer. 3. Mr. Watkins; drove a lorry and took goods to Salthaven. 4. She found the key in its usual place. 5. Kate walked slowly home, wondering how to break the bad news. 6. Sunday passed peacefully. 7. Jim began to run. 8. Last August we found a blackbirds nest. 9. They accused him of spying. 10. On her knee Mrs. Lawrence held a bright red handbag. 11. There was a long silence. 12. The sea was only two miles away.4. Use the verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense.
. He (to lose) his balance and (to fall). 2. Ann's grandfather (to found) his firm in 1901. 3. Clearing out the room I (to find) these old letters. 4. The lion (to jump) and (to spring) at her. 5. I suddenly (to see) a face in the window. 6. The train (to start off) with a jerk. 7. The police (to open) fire and (to wound) two criminals. 8. He (to lie) there for an hour till someone finally (to hear) his cries for help. 9. We (to meet) last summer. 10. I (to decide) to stay with my uncle until I (to find) a flat. 11. As it (to grow) darker, we (to find) it hard to walk. 12. The critic (to write) a very bad review of my play. 13. We (to go) for a walk every day before lunch. 14. It (to happen) a long time ago.5. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.
1.I (to watch) television at seven o'clock every evening.
2.I (to watch) television yesterday.
.She (to comb) her hair every morning.
.Yesterday she (to comb) her hair.
.They (not to rest) yesterday.
.Yesterday he (to have) a holiday. He (not to go) to the office. He (to get) up at eleven o'clock, (to wash) his face, (to have) breakfast and (to go) for a walk.
8.As a rule my mother (to cook) dinner. But yesterday she (to decide) not to cook. She (to invite) us to the restaurant.
9.He (not to like) coffee. But yesterday he (to drink) a cup of coffee as he (to be) very tired.
10.You often (to take) your brother for a walk? - Yes. - Why you (not to take) him for a walk the day before yesterday? - He (to be) ill.
Exercise 6. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.
.They (to be) in London last month.
2.Who of your friends (to speak) English?
.How many lessons you (to have) every day?
4.I (not to be) at home yesterday, I (to go) for a walk.
5.He usually (to sleep) well. But last night he (to sleep) bad.
6.Your sister (to be) a doctor? - Yes, she (to become) a doctor two years ago.
7.He (not to shave) today because he (not to have) time.
8.You (to get) up early on Sunday? - Yes. But last Sunday I (to sleep) till ten o'clock.
9.When you (to leave) the meeting yesterday?
10.She (to enjoy) the film, which we (to see) last week?
11.Why your parents (to be) so angry last night? - Because my brother (to be) late.7. Write the text in Past Indefinite.
Не gets up at seven o'clock. He washes his face, cleans his teeth and combs. He goes to the kitchen and has his breakfast. For breakfast he has a cup of coffee and cheese. When the breakfast is over, he goes to the office. He takes a bus to get to his work.the office he works till two o'clock. At two o'clock he has dinner. He finishes his work at seven o'clock in. the evening. He decides to walk a little after his working day. He returns home at nine. He doesn't want to have supper, he only drinks tea. Suddenly he remembers that he has to phone his friend. He dials the numbers that he has to phone his friend. He dials the number but nobody answers. His friend is not at home. He goes to his room and decides to watch TV. When the TV programme is over, he sleeps.8. Write the text in the Past Indefinite Tense.weather is bad. There is no sun in the sky. Beth wakes up late in the morning. She doesn't want to leave the bed. She stays in her bed for some time. But Beth is hungry. She wants something to eat. She makes herself to get up, and goes to the bathroom. She washes and cleans her teeth. Beth goes to the kitchen and has her breakfast. After breakfast she thinks how to spend her day. Suddenly the telephone rings. Her friend Tom phones. Tom says he has two tickets to the theatre and he invites her to go and see the play. Beth thanks him and agrees to go to the theatre. The play begins at twelve. She has only two hours to dress and to get to the theatre. Beth doesn't know what to put on in such a bad weather. She thinks for some minutes and chooses her new beautiful dress! The weather is bad but she is in a good mood.9. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.
1.His mother (to be) a housewife.
2.They (to be) happy to see you now?
3.You (to write) the test yesterday.
4.She (not to go) to school. She (to be) ill.
5.His brother (to come) yesterday? - No, he (not to come). He (to be) busy.
6.They (to have) a nice weekend last week.
7.Yesterday he (to get) home and (to take) his dog for a walk.
8.You often (to go) to the theatre? - Not very often. Usually we (to go) there once a month.
9.Why Susan (not to notice) us last night? - We (to be) in the shadow and she (not to see) us.
10.What animals you (to like) better: cats or dogs?
11.She (to buy) a new dress two days ago? - No, she (not to buy) it.
12.What your sister (to do) every Sunday? - She (to meet) with her friends.
13.He (not to understand) the teacher at the last lesson.
14.Last month we (to move) to other place.
15.She (to be) ill now. She (to eat) an ice-cream yesterday.
16.They (to sell) their house a week ago? - I (not to know).
17.My grandmother often (to forget) her spectacles in her room when she (to leave) the house.
18.Can you tell me what the weather (to be) like?
19.I (to be) in this town last year.
20.Her daughter (to draw) very well.
Exercise 10. Read a sentence about the present and then write a sentence about the past.: Granny usually gets up at 6.30. Yesterday she got up at 6.30.
1.Granny usually wakes up early. Yesterday morning _____________________
2.Granny usually walks in the garden. Yesterday _________________________
.Granny usually has a sandwich for lunch. Yesterday_____________________
.Granny usually goes out in the evening. Yesterday evening _______________
.Granny usually sleeps very well. Yesterday ____________________________11. Put one of these verbs in each sentence:, teach, spend, sell, throw, fall, catch, buy, cost.: I was thirsty, so I bought apple juice in the shop.
1.My fatherme how to drive when I was 17.
2.James _________ down the stairs and _________ his leg.
3.We needed some money so we ____________ our summer house.
4.They ______ a lot of money yesterday. They _______ a dishwasher which ___
5.The boy _____________the ball to the dog and the dog _______________ it.
Exercise 12. Write questions. A friend has just come back from Italy and you are asking him about it.: What place/go to? What place did you go to?weather/fine? Was the weather fine?
1.how long/stay there? ______________________________________
2.stay at a hotel? __________________________________________
3.go alone? _____________________
5.the food/good? ___________________________________________
6.what/do in the evenings? __________________________________
7.make any friends there? _____________________________________
Exercise 13. Put the verb into the correct form. All the sentences are past.: I didn't go (not/go) to the park yesterday because the weather wasn't (not/be) very good.
1.I ________ (not/have breakfast) this morning because I(not/
2.We_______(not/buy) anything because we _________(not/have) any money.
3.I __________ (not/sleep) because I ______________(not/feel) sleepy.
4.She _____ (not/be) interested in the book because she _____(not/understand) it.
Exercise 14. Complete the sentence with used to.: He doesn't play the piano any more but he used to play every day.
1.She doesn't eat sweets now but shethem every day.
2.Miranda _______ my colleague but we don't work together any longer.
3.We live in Sussex now but wein Scotland.
4.Now there is one cinema in our town but therefive.
5.When they were young theyour garden but they don't like it now.
6.Melly walks everywhere now. Shea horse.15. Translate into English using the Past Indefinite Tense.
1. Мы начали этот опыт на прошлой неделе. 2. Они вернулись домой в 7 часов вечера. 3. Мы решили послать это письмо вчера. 4. Кому вы отдали эти журналы? 5. Вчера я встретил Стива в библиотеке. 6. Когда вы его видели в последний раз? - В прошлый вторник. 7. В прошлом году мы не изучали французский. Мы изучали английский. 8. В котором часу вы начали работать вчера? - После обеда. У нас было мало работы. 9. Погода была хорошая, и мы с друзьями пошли в парк. 10. Где вы были час тому назад? 11. Я встретил ее позавчера, и она рассказала мне об этом.
Exercise 16. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.
. What your neighbours (to do) yesterday? 2. Mr Smith (to fix) his car yesterday morning. 3. His wife (to water) plants in the garden. 4. Their children (to clean) the yard and then they (to play) basketball. 5. In the evening their boys (to listen) to loud music and (to watch) TV. 6. Their little girl (to cry) a little and then (to smile). 7. Her brothers (to shout) at her. 8. Mrs Smith (to work) in the kitchen. 9. She (to bake) a delicious apple pie. 10. She (to cook) a good dinner. 11. She (to wash) the dishes and (to look) very tired. 12. The children (to brush) their teeth, (to yawn) a little and (to go) to bed. 13. Their mother (to change) her clothes and (to brush) her hair. Then she (to talk) on the phone. 14. Her husband (to smoke) a cigarette and (to talk) to his wife. 15. They (to wait) for the bus. The bus (to arrive) at 9 o'clock. 16. They (to visit) their friends. 17. They (to dance) a lot there. 18. Mr and Mrs Smith (to rest) very well last night. They really (to have) a wonderful time with their friends.17. Write the text in the Past Indefinite Tense.Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At this lesson we write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers well and gets a "five". Pete does not get a "five" because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not go home at once. I go to the library and change my books. Then I go home.18. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.
. His sister (to study) English every day. 2. She (to study) English two hours ago. 3. You (to come) home at six o'clock yesterday? - No, I ... . Yesterday I (to come) home from school at half past eight. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family. After dinner I (to be) very thirsty. I (to drink) two cups of tea. Then I (to rest). 4. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 5. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 6. My brother (to wash) his face every morning. 7. Last night he (to wash) his face with soap and water. 8. I (not to have) history lessons every day. 9. We (not to rest) yesterday.10. My brother (not to drink) coffee yesterday.11.My mother always (to take) a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus. Yesterday she (to walk) to her office. 12. You (to talk) to the members of your family every day? - Yes, I ... . But yesterday I (not to talk) to them: I (to be) very busy yesterday. 13. Your sister (to go) to school every day? - Yes, she ... . 14. Mary (to like) writing stories. 15. Last week she (to write) a funny story about her pet. 16. You (to tell) your mother the truth about the money? 17. You (to wear) your polka-dot dress to work? - Yes, I .... I (to wear) it yesterday. 18. We (to like) to go to the beach. We (to enjoy) swimming in the ocean last weekend.19. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite.
. Tom always (to eat) breakfast. 2. Yesterday he (not to eat) breakfast because he (to get) up late. 3. We (to like) to cook but we (not to like) to wash the dishes. 4. He never (to shout) at his students. He (to be) a wonderful teacher, I remember. 5. My friend (to know) Spanish very well. 6. Who (to ring) you up an hour ago? 7. He (to live) on the third floor. 8. It (to take) you long to find his house yesterday? 9. When your lessons (to be) over on Monday? 10. I (to have) dinner with my family yesterday. 11. Her friends (to be) ready at five o'clock. 12. One of her brothers (to make) a tour of Europe last summer. 13. Queen Elizabeth II (to be) born in 1926. She (to become) Queen of England in 1952. 14. You always (to get) up at seven o'clock? - No, sometimes I (to get) up-at half past seven. 15. Antonio Stradivari (to make) wonderful violins. 16. Who (to paint) the world-known picture "Mona Lisa"? 17. She (to know) all the works of Chopin. She (to enjoy) listening to his waltz last night. 18. Steven's friends (to come) to his birthday party last night and (to give) him wonderful presents. His parents (to cook) a special dinner for him. His girlfriend (to promise) to come, but she (not to be) there. He (to try) to phone, but he couldn't get through. He (to be) really upset. Only she (not to wish) him a Happy Birthday.20. Complete the sentences with the prepositions of time.
1. I start work8 o'clock. 2. I'm going on holidayOctober. 3. Where will you be Christmas? 4. Are you busy the moment? 5. I always feel bred _____ the evening. 6. Goodbye! I'll see you _____a few days. 7. We are going to the country______the weekend. 8. I don't work _____ Saturdays. 9. I didn't sleep well last night, somebody calledmidnight. 10. I left school1994 and entered the Universitythe 1st of September 1995. 11. Are you doing anything __________ Saturday evening? 12. We metlunch ___________ Monday and haven't seen him since. 13. In Russia children go to school ___________ the age of seven. 14. The Christmas holidays start _________ the end of January. 15. ______ that daynobody worked at the office. 16. We met _______ the spring of 1945. 17. I'll be back I _________ a few minutes. 18. We livethe 21st century. 19. I'm meeting Jill ________ Monday morning.
Exercise 21. Put in prepositions of time if necessary.
1. I don't workMondays, but _______ last Monday I had to work, we're fullthe end of the month. 2. I'm leaving ________ Friday, I go to my country house _______ every other Friday. 3. Will you be at home ________ this evening? - I'm afraid not, let's meet __________ the afternoon. 4. We usually go to France ________ summer, but it has become so crowded there that we decided to go to Spain __________ this summer. 5.I don't often go out ________ night, but ________ this night is a special one, my son is gettingmarried. 6. I phone Robert _______ every Sunday, that's the first time I didn't manage it __________ Sunday.
Exercise 22. Translate into Russian.the lecture, during the war, during the meeting, for five years, for a week, for ten minutes, for a year, before breakfast, after dinner, after classes, from 3 till 5, from Monday till Friday, from morning till night, by 9 o'clock, by tomorrow, by the end of the week, on Wednesday, on a warm summer day, on the first of September, at 11 o'clock, at night, in 15 minutes, in 10 days, in a year's time, in the morning, in winter, in March, in January.
Exercise23. Translate intoEnglish.
с утра до вечера, во время каникул (holidays), в это время, в течение многих лет, в 10 часов, с восьми до девяти, с десяти до одиннадцати, через 5 минут, в 2006 году, летом, осенью, в мае, утром, вечером, с понедельника до субботы, в воскресенье, в декабре, весной, через год, в течение 3 часов, днем, в декабре, весной, через год, в течение 3 недель, днем, через 10 дней, ночью, до занятий, после урока, во время урока, до обеда, после завтрака.24. Translate into English.
В четыре часа, в половине шестого, без четверти три, на закате, в четверть пятого, в полночь, в пять минут шестого, без десяти два, в полдень, на восходе солнца, в двадцать пять третьего.
Exercise 25. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions.
. I get up ... seven o'clock or ... a quarter past seven. 2. ... Sunday I usually get up ... nine o'clock or ... half past nine. But last Sunday I slept very long and got up only ... noon. 3. My birthday is ... the ninth of July. 4. The school year begins ... the first of September. 5. ... the twenty-fifth of December people celebrate Christmas. 6. ... Wednesday I usually have a lot of homework. 7. Lev Tolstoy liked to get up ... sunrise. 8. Our lessons are usually over ... twenty minutes to two. 9. They returned from the wood ... sunset. 10. I began writing my composition ... seven o'clock and finished only ... midnight.VI. a) Read the text and try to focus on its essential facts. Choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph:
) Specific Features of Different Cultures 2) What is Culture? 3) Common Features of Different Cultures) Make a précis of the text, using the following phrases:
. The title of the text is... 2. The text is about... The text deals with... 3. The text covers such points as... 4. It should be underlined that... 5. In conclusion, I may say that... 6. To my mind... 7. In my opinion...CULTUREis a term, which is used by social scientists for a people's whole way of life. In its narrow meaning, culture is activities in such fields as art, literature, and music. Social scientists consider that a people's culture consists of all ideas, objects, and ways how people create things. Culture includes arts, beliefs, customs, inventions, language, technology, and traditions. The term "civilization" is similar, but it refers mostly to scientifically more advanced ways of life. A culture is any way of life, simple or complex.cultures have features that result from basic needs, which are shared by all people. Every culture has methods of obtaining food and shelter. There is also a way to keep order: a system of police, courts, and prisons. Every culture has ways to protect itself against invaders. It also has family relationships, religious beliefs. All societies have forms of artistic expression, such as painting, music, etc. In addition, each culture has some type of scientific knowledge.differ in their details from one part of the world to another. For example, eating is a biological need. But what people eat, when and how they eat, and how food is prepared differ from culture to culture. People do not realize how greatly culture influences their behaviour until they come across other ways of doing things. People feel most comfortable within their own culture, and they prefer the company of others who share their culture. When people have to deal with persons of another culture, even small differences in behaviour may make them uneasy.2. Read and give a summary of the textTHE HISTORY OF HUMAN CULTUREfoundations for human culture developed in prehistoric times. Important steps in the growth of culture include the development of tools, the start of farming, the growth of cities, and the development of writing.development of tools began about 2 million years ago. The early human beings learned to make stone tools and kill animals for food. Prehistoric people probably made things of bone, hair, skin, and wood. The hunters also learned the habits of the animals. Such learning is a simple kind of scientific knowledge.8people had to plant crops and rear animals for food. They became the first farmers. It occurred about 9000 B.C., and it was one of the most important steps in the growth of human culture.3500 B.C., cities had appeared. People became artists and builders, judges and priests. All their new knowledge and skills made up the growth of culture.development of writing is one of the most important steps. The first system of writing was developed about 3500 B.C. People could record their thoughts and aspects of their culture and could pass them in a written form from generation to generation.3.Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:
1) ученые в области социологии; 2) образ жизни; 3) в узком значении; 4) деятельность в таких областях как; 5) ученые считают; 6) способы создания; 7) культура включает; 8) виды искусства; 9) главным образом; 10) более продвинутый образ жизни; 11) которые являются результатом; 12) основные нужды; 13) которые разделяются всеми людьми; 14) методы получения пищи и крыши над головой; 15) поддерживать порядок; 16) суды и тюрьмы; 17) защищать себя; 18) против захватчиков; 19) семейные отношения;20) религиозные вероисповедания; 21) художественное выражение; 22) живопись; 23) вдобавок; 24) научное знание; 25) различаются в деталях; 26), например; 27) принятие пищи; 28) различается от культуры к культуре; 29) как сильно культура влияет на поведение людей; 30)встречаются с другими способами;31) в пределах своей собственной культуры; 32)вынуждены иметь дело с; 33) даже маленькая разница;34) может заставить чувствовать себя некомфортно; 35)основы человеческой культуры; 35) в доисторические времена; 36) рост культуры; 37) создание орудий труда; 38) начало ведения сельского хозяйства; 39) создание письменности; 40)древние люди; 41) каменные орудия труда; 42) для приготовления пищи;43) вероятно, изучали привычки животных; 44) научное знание;45) вынуждены были;46) выращивать урожаи; 47) выращивать животных; 48) это случилось; 49) к 3500 году до нашей эры; 50) города появились; 51) художники и строители; 52) судьи и священники; 53) знания и навыки; 54) составляли; 55) была создана; 56) могли записывать; 57) передавать в письменной форме; 58) от поколения к поколению.
Exercise 4.) Find in the texts the words, which have the similar meanings as the following words:, all, sense, progressive, main, getting, to defend, kind, to understand, to meet, uncomfortable, the beginning, perhaps;) Find in the texts the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following words, less, complex, big, easy, the end, finished, to disappear, old..Fill in the blanks with the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you:
. I don't like his w... of life. 2. The European cultures are s... . 3. But every culture has its specific f... . 4. I s... the room with my brother. 5. There are some forms of artistic e... in every culture. 6. They obtain f... and s... . 7. I have never c... a... such a word. 8. Culture influences the b... of the people. 9. We are studying English s... by s... . 10. The ancient people made things of b... and s... .. Find in the texts, translate, and analyse:) grammar forms with the ending -ed:
(грамматические формы с окончанием -ed)
is usedthe hunters learnedsharedit occurredpreparedcities had appeareddevelopedwas developedbeings learned) grammar forms with the ending -s:scientiststhe foundationspeople's whole way of life in prehistoric timesimportant stepssuch fieldsthe development of toolspeople's culture consists the growth of citiesideas, objects 2 million yearsincludes the early human beings, beliefs stone toolsreferskill animalscultures have features made thingsmethods the huntersways the habits of the animalsinvaders had to plant cropsrelationshipshad to rear animalsbeliefsthe first farmershave formsone of the important stepstheir detailscities, artists and buildersinfluences judges and priestsways skillscompany of others their thoughts and aspects7. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:
. Culture is...
. In its narrow meaning, culture is...
. Culture includes...
. The term "civilization" is...
. All cultures have features that result...
. Every culture has...
. Cultures differ...
. Culture influences...
. People feel most comfortable within...
. They prefer...
. The foundations of the human culture developed...
. The development of tools began...
. People had to...
. People became...
. People could record...8. Answer the questions about the culture:
. What does the term "culture" mean?
. What does the term "culture" mean in its narrow meaning?
. What does culture include?
. What does the term "civilization" mean?
. What common features do all cultures have?
. What forms of artistic expression do all societies have?
. What different features do all cultures have?
. When do people feel most comfortable?
. When do people feel uneasy?
. When did the foundations for human culture develop?
. What important steps in the growth of culture include?
. When did the development of tools begin?
. What did prehistoric people make things of?
. What did the hunters learn?
. When did the first farmers appear?
. When did the first cities appear?
. When was the first system of writing developed?
. What could people record then?9. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:
. Culture is a people's whole way of life. 2. Culture is activities in such fields as art, literature, and music. 3. Culture consists of arts and beliefs. 4. The terms "culture" and "civilization" are just the same. 5. Culture is a simple way of life. 6. All cultures are the same. 7. People feel most comfortable within their own culture. 8. People feel uneasy with persons of another culture. 9. The foundations for human culture developed in prehistoric times. 10. The development of writing is one of the important steps in the development of culture.exercises1. Put the verbs in brackets into Future Indefinite.
1. I (to see) them next Saturday.
. They (to be) here tomorrow.
3. We (to have) the test in a week.
4. She (to spend) holidays in the country.
. The journey (to take) three hours.
. I (to open) the door for you.
. I (to go) to school tomorrow?
. They (to come) back next week?
. We (to leave) Kyiv this evening?
. You (to wait) for me?
. Nick (to finish) school next year?
. She (to agree) with you?
. I (not to swim) tomorrow.
. He (not to play) in the garden.
. The weather (not to be) fine on Sunday.
. We (not to be) busy in the evening.
. Sheila (not to get) passport next year.
. Why your father (to help) you?
. When she (to study) English?
. How we (to get) there?
. How long the journey (to take)?
. How many people (to arrive) today?
. When you (to go) to the cinema?
Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple, Present Continuous or Future Simple.
1.They (to play) football tomorrow.
2.I (not to play) croquet tomorrow.
3.We (not to stay) at home next day.
4.We (to stay) at home every Sunday.
5.He (to write) letters very often.
6.He (to write) a letter at the moment.
7.He (to write) a letter now.
8.Ann (to play) the piano.
9.Ann (to play) the piano next lesson.
10.Listen! Ann (to play) the piano.
11.You (to get) up early every day?
12.You (to get) up early next morning?
13.It's ten o'clock already! You (to get up)?
14.She (to pass) exams every year?
15.She (to pass) exams in a month?