.  .   .
 ,       .
 
 

:




















3

4

5

6

11

14

17

19

22

25

29

32

35

36

 
 


1:

2:

3: ( )

4:

5: '

6:

7:

8:

9: '



:

;

';

;

;

';

.

' (, '), , (, ..) .

1. ' 2-3

M = 0

P = 5300

d = 56

󠠠 l = 40

- f = 0,13

ij d1 = 50

ij d2 = 78

45

4417

Rzd = 5

RzD = 10

' t = 60ْ


:

1. ³ ;

2. ³ '.

( ).

(M; P) ' (d; l) ' [1.1]:


, [1.1]

P , ; M , ; l , ; f - -.



p Nmin [1.2]


, [1.2]


E1 E2 ; c1 c2 , [1.3] [1.4]


, [1.3]

, [1.4]


d1 ; d2 ; μ1 μ2 .

E1 = 1,96105 /2, E2 = 0,84105 /2, μ1 = 0,3, μ2 = 0,35 (. 1.106, . 335. 1).


Nmin [1.5]


, [1.5]


γ , ' [1.6]


[1.6]


γt , [1.7]


, [1.7]


αD αd ;


αD = 17,610-6 -1, αd = 11,510-6 -1 (. 1.62, . 187-188, 1).



[pmax], . [pmax] , [1.8] [1.9]


, [1.8]

, [1.9]


σ1 σ2 .

σ1 =355 (. 3, . 97, 1), σ2 = 147 (. 68, . 198, 1).



Nmax [1.10]

[1.10]


Nmin [1.11]


, [1.11]


γ , .

γ = 0,93 ( . 1.68, . 336, 1).



(.1.49, . 156, 1)


,


Nmax = 106 < [Nmax], Nmin = 57 > [Nmin].

.1.1


.1.2

.1.3


2. ' 16-17 :


.2.1

.2.2


, [2.1], [2.2], [2.3]


, [2.1]

, [2.2]

, [2.3]


[2.4], [2.5]


, [2.4]

, [2.5]


- ; - ; - ; - . (=30 , =-10 , =25 , = 0 )


() [2.6]


[2.6]


[2.7]


[2.7]


(1.65) = 0.4505 (. 1.1, . 12, 1).

[2.8] ( [2.9]) [2.10] ( [2.11]):


[2.8]

[2.9]

[2.10]

[2.11]


󠠠

󠠠


.2.3


3. () ': 16-17.

- h7

.3.1


[3.1], - [3.2], - [3.3]


, [3.1]

, [3.2]

, [3.3]


d ; ; ; Z1 ; Y1 .

Z1 = 4 , Y1 = 3 (. 2, . 8, 24853-81).


( ) H1 = 5 (. 2, . 8, 24853-81).

( , ) H = 2 (. 2, . 8, 24853-81).

-:

ࠠ ,

ࠠ .

- :

ࠠ ,

ࠠ ,

.


.3.2


- Js8

.3.3


[3.4], - [3.5], - [3.6]


, [3.4]

, [3.5]

, [3.6]


D - ; - ; - ; Z - ; Y - .

Z = 7 , Y = 5 (. 2, . 8, 24853-81).


( ) H = 5 (. 2, . 8, 24853-81).

-:

ࠠ ,

ࠠ .


.3.4


4. 7 8 421.

򳠠 0

R = 45

100%

:

ij d = 105

ij D = 260

ࠠ B = 60

ࠠ r = 4

- , - . [4]


, [4.1]

R ; B ; r , k , ( 150%, k = 1); F , ( F = 1, . 4.90, . 286, 2); FA R (FA = 1 - ).



(. 4.92, . 287, 2), (. 4.93, . 289, 2).


³ :

L0-20 (. 4.82, . 273, 2),

l0-35 (. 4.83, . 276, 2).


.4.1

.4.2


5. ' 13-14

⠠ z = 16

𠠠 D = 82

45

4417

' , (HB = 255 1051-88) (HB = 60 . 68, . 198, 1) , . z = 16, d = 72 , D = 82 , b = 7 (. 4.71, . 251, 2).

(. 4.72, 4.75, . 252 253, 2).


.5.1


.5.2

.5.3


.5.4

.5.5


6. 10-11.

m = 10

⠠ z = 25

v = 5 /


[6.1] [6.2]


[6.1]

[6.2]


- , . - 8 ( ) (. 5.12, . 330, 2).

ij [6.3]


, [6.3]


h*a = 1 13755-81 9587-81.



Fr = 80 (. 5.7,. 317, 2), Fp = 125 (. 5.8, . 319, 2).

fi = 60 , fpt = 32 , ff = 28 (. 5.9, . 321, 2).

.. b = 50 , 40%, 50%; fx = 25 , fy = 12 , Fβ = 25 (. 5.10, . 323-324, 2).

- , - d, - III (. 5.15, . 335, 2).

̳ [6.4]


, [6.4]


z1 = z2 = 25.


jnmin = 72 , fa = 35 (. 5.17, . 336, 2).

1643-81 8-d


m,

10

z

25

-

13755-81

0

1643-81

-

8-d

Fr,

80

fpt,

32

jnmin,

72

ij

d,

250

ij

P ,

31.4


7. . .


.7.1

.7.2


.

蠠 [A∑max] = 4.2 ;

蠠 [A∑min] = 3.8 ;

蠠 [] = 0.2 ;

蠠 [] = -0.2 ;

c∑] = 0;

󠠠 [] = 0.4 .

[7.1] ( ):


.

[7.1]


A = 4 : 1 = 100 , 2 = 8 ; 3 = 112 . [7.1]: 112 - (100 + 8) = 4.

[7.2]

, [7.2]


[] , i . i1 = 2.17, i2 = 0.9, i3 = 2.17 (. 3.3, . 20, 2).



10- (. 1.8, . 44, 1).

, : 1 = 0.14 , 3 = 0.14 . [7.4] 2


[7.3]

[7.4]


, , . 1 h, 3 H, Δc1 = -1/2 = -0.07 , Δc3 = 0.07 . 2 [7.5]


[7.5]

2 [7.6] [7.7]


[7.6]

[7.7]


[7.8]


[7.8]

1

2

3


.

蠠 [A∑max] = 4.2 ;

蠠 [A∑min] = 3.8 ;

蠠 [] = 0.2 ;

蠠 [] = -0.2 ;

c∑] = 0;

󠠠 [] = 0.4 .

[7.1] ( ):


.


A = 4 : 1 = 100 , 2 = 8 ; 3 = 112 . [7.1]: 112 (100 + 8) = 4. , , , , , . . , = 0.27%. = 0.27% - t = 3 (. 3.8, . 36, 2). [7.9]


[7.9]


i1 = 2.17, i2 = 0.9, i3 = 2.17 (. 3.3, . 20, 2).



11- (. 1.8, . 44, 1).

, : 1 = 0.22 , 3 = 0.22 . [7.11] T2


[7.10]

[7.11]


. 1 h, 3 H, Δc1 = -1/2 = -0.11 , Δc3 = 0.11 . 2 [7.5]



2 [7.6] [7.7]


1

2

8. .

ࠠ l = 14

򠠠 27

ࠠ 27


27 - P = 3 , d = 27 (.4.22, . 141, 2). [8.1], [8.2]


[8.1]

[8.2]


l = 14 N (. 4.27, . 149, 2). 6h, 6G (. 4.28, . 151, 2).

( . 4.29, . 155, 2):


d2max = 25.051 ;

d2min = 25.051-0.200 = 24.851 ( 200 6h);

dmax = 27 ;

dmin = 27-0.375 = 26.625 ( 375 6h);

d1max = 23.752;

d1min .


( . 4.29, . 165, 2):

D2max = 25.051+0.313 = 25.364 ( 313 6G);

D2mix = 25.051+0.048 = 25.099 ( 48 6G);

Dmax ;

Dmin = 27+0.048 = 27.048 ( 48 6G);

D1max = 23.752+0.548 = 24.3 ( 548 6G);

D1mix = 23.752+0.048 = 23.8 ( 48 6G).


.8.3


9. ' ( 23360-78). .

蠠 b = 22

ࠠ t1 = 9

h = 14

b h9

蠠 Js9

ࠠ N9

h9, Js9, N9 ' , - (. 4.65, . 237, 2).


.9.1


' ( 23360-78):

ij ࠠ d = 80

蠠 b = 22

蠠 h = 14

ࠠ s = 0.7

蠠 l = 95

󠠠 t1 = 9

t2 = 5.4

r = 0.5

(. 4.64, . 236, 2).

.9.2


.9.3

.9.4


㳿: ; . - ' - .


1. . . 2- ./.. , .. , .. , .. . ., 2003

2. -. 3- ./.. ., 2003

3. .. , . ., 2002

4. 㺺 .., .. , . ., 2001.

5. .., .., .. , . ., 2004

6. . / : .. , .. , .. , .. ̳. ., 2003



()
1998 2000 . . . . : . , . . ., . - . ., , . - -, - ..-.

: * ; * -; * - , ; * -, - ; * .
...
| | | | | | | | ... | || | | | |
()
: 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; 6. .

. -, . . . - - . - - . - - - - .

. 2. 8.

. 3,19. 4,79.